Session 18

Viral Pathogenesis, Virulence & Countermeasures

Viral Pathogenesis is nothing but the origin of a disease through viruses, while virulence is, the ability of infectious agent to produce a disease and countermeasure is an action that counters infectious agents. A viral is a germ smaller than bacteria. Without the host cells Viruses cannot grow on their own. They live in human bodies. They cause cold, fever, influenza, diarrhea, dengue, hepatitis, rabies, measles, smallpox, polio, AIDS etc. Viruses are virulent in that they have a protective coating and hence cannot be cured with antibiotics. But vaccines help contain viral infections. Viral pathogenesis is a field where evolution is taking place at rapid pace introducing the newer methodologies in developing systems biology. Some pathogens have an array of virulence factors. We need to develop newer drugs to effectively combat infectious viral diseases. This session throws open the debate on the strategies to be adopted to develop newer drugs to counter viral pathogenesis of infectious diseases. The latest in research trends, the latest technologies, robotics and nanotechnology and its applications are the need of the hour to counter pathogenesis of viral infectious diseases and their virulent factors. All the pathologists, virologists, microbiologists, bacteriologists, parasitologists, and immunologists have to focus on these issues and challenges to combat viral infections.

Session 17

Applied Microbiology

Applied microbiology is a scientific discipline that deals with the application of microorganisms and the knowledge about them. Applications include biotechnology, agriculture, medicine, food microbiology and bioremediation. Basically, applied microbiology is a subset of microbiology. Applied microbiology is the study of the way the microbial world interacts with our own and how we can utilize microbes in various processes. Applied microbiology deals with learning and implementing the microbial breakthroughs in various fields such as how to control marine shipping vessels from microbial attacks, how to improve bread and pastries preparations using microbes, how to control pathological contaminations through different routes into the human bodies etc. This session discusses more about applied microbiology.

Session 16

Infectious Diseases in Animals

There are nearly more than 50 infectious diseases in animals. Agents certain viruses, bacteria, fungi, protozoans, worms, and arthropods capable of producing disease are pathogens. The term pathogenicity refers to the ability of a parasite to enter a host and produce disease; the degree of pathogenicity that is the ability of an organism to cause infection is known as virulence. The capacity of a virulent organism to cause infection is influenced both by the characteristics of the organism and by the ability of the host to repel the invasion and to prevent injury. A pathogen may be virulent for one host but not for another. Pneumococcal bacteria have a low virulence for mice and are not found in them in nature; if introduced experimentally into a mouse, however, the bacteria overwhelm its body defenses and cause death. This session discusses more about infectious diseases in animals.

Session 15

Infectious Diseases in Plants

Infectious diseases are caused by living organisms called pathogens. Noninfectious diseases caused by environmental stress and damage by weather and other environmental factors. Environmental factors that cause a plant to be stressed may result in the plant’s gradual decline. Decline results in the plant being more susceptible to disease organisms. There are at least 50,000 diseases of crop plants. New diseases are discovered every year. About 25% of the total world’s crop production is lost annually to infectious diseases despite improved cultivars and disease control techniques. Damage from disease has not been eliminated. Disease-causing organisms pathogens multiply and mutate rapidly. They develop genetic resistance to chemical controls and have the ability to infect new hybrids. This session discusses more about infectious diseases in plants.

Session 14

Management of Diagnostic Microbiology Laboratory

Management of Diagnostic Microbiology Laboratory has become crucial as dramatic changes in infectious diseases practice are witnessed. Microbiology laboratories are the first lines of defense for detection of new antibiotic resistance, outbreaks of foodborne infection, and a possible bioterrorism event. Maintaining high-quality clinical microbiology laboratories on the site of the institution that they serve is the current best approach for managing today’s problems of emerging infectious diseases and antimicrobial agent resistance by providing good patient care outcomes that actually save money. Continuing in such a direction threatens quality of laboratory results, timeliness of diagnosis, appropriateness of treatment, effective communication, reduction of health care-associated infections, advances in infectious diseases practice, and training of future practitioners. This session discusses more about management of diagnostic microbiology laboratory.

Session 13

Microbial Genomics & Genome Sequencing

Microbial Genomics & Genome Sequencing deals with the knowledge of entire genetic sequences opens a whole new range of possibilities for more efficient research. The nearly complete human genome sequence is the cornerstone of genome-based biology which provides the richest intellectual resource in the history of biology. The availability of entire genome sequences marks a new age in biology as it has the potential to open innovative and efficient research avenues. Thus many laboratories are addressing important questions in functional genomics research by integrating genomic, proteomic, genetic, biochemical, and bioinformatic approaches. As such areas in functional genomics and associated genomic technology are developing very rapidly. This session discusses more about microbial genomics and genome sequencing.

Session 12

Clinical Microbiology

Clinical Microbiology deals with the study of basic and applied research relevant to therapy and diagnostics in the fields of microbiology, infectious diseases, virology, parasitology, immunology and epidemiology. And also deals with the study of the most current research related to the most current research related to the laboratory diagnosis of human and animal infections and the role of the laboratory in both the management of infectious diseases and the elucidation of the epidemiology of infections. It helps to understand the challenges that humans encounter when come in contact with microbes and how to mitigate them successfully. This session discusses more about clinical microbiology.

Session 11

Infection Control & Prevention

Infection control is the discipline concerned with preventing nosocomial or healthcare-associated infection. Infection control and hospital epidemiology are akin to public health practice. Anti-infective agents include antibiotics, antibacterials, antifungals, antivirals and antiprotozoals. Infection control addresses factors related to the spread of infections within the healthcare setting whether patient-to-patient, from patients to staff and from staff to patients, or among-staff, including prevention via hand hygiene/hand washing, cleaning/disinfection/sterilization, vaccination, surveillance, monitoring/investigation of demonstrated or suspected spread of infection within a particular health-care setting surveillance and outbreak investigation, and management interruption of outbreaks. This session discusses more about Infection Control & Prevention.

Session 10

Emerging Microbes & Infection

Emerging Microbes & Infections (EMI) deals with emerging infectious diseases, especially with new information from developing countries where such diseases are constantly arising and being discovered regularly. It will report discoveries of emerging microbes such as bacteria, viruses, fungi and other pathogens including their previously unknown phenotypic or genotypic characteristics, as well as cutting edge information associated with microbial mechanisms of pathogenesis, immune evasion and protection, clinical presentation and outcome, drug efficacy and its resistance, epidemiology and other issues important to global health. The mission of Emerging Microbes & Infections (EMI) is to provide a new integrated forum to allow for the timely dissemination of large amount of information gathered about microbes and infections, especially ones associated with increasing biological and clinical significance. This session discusses more about emerging microbes and infections.

Session 9

Epidemiology of Infectious Diseases and Public Health Concerns

Emergence of infectious diseases is based on technological and environmental factors having a dramatic effect on infectious diseases. The reemergence of existing old infectious diseases which include drug-resistant forms are the major causes of worry. Infectious diseases are spreading rapidly due to demographic, ecologic conditions and population growth, increasing poverty, migration of people to urban areas are some of the reasons for the rapid spread of infectious diseases. Infectious diseases are spread through tourists, immigrants, processed food, animals that transmit diseases. Epidemiologists should work with governments of the world and draw strategies in this regard to control and prevent the spread of infectious diseases. This session discusses in detail Epidemiology of Infectious Diseases and Public Health Concerns.

Session 8

Treatment and Therapeutics of Infectious Diseases

Several antibiotics have been discovered following the discovery of penicillin in 1928 by Scottish Scientist and Nobel Laureate Alexander Fleming. Antibiotics have come a long way to cure infectious diseases. Today more than 100 different kinds of antibiotics have been discovered. The antibiotics have been found to cure various kind of infectious disease caused by microbes, but the advent of drug resistance in them also known as SUPERBUGS has pose new challenges for researchers. The advent of multiple drug resistance in microbes has posed new challenge to researchers. The scientists are now evaluating alternatives for combating infectious diseases. Focus on major alternatives to antibiotics; these promising anti-microbial include phages, bacteriocins, killing factors, antibacterial activities of non-antibiotic drugs and quorum quenching. This session focuses more on treatment and therapeutics of infectious diseases.

Session 7

Immunology of Infectious Diseases

Whether an infectious disease agent is an emerging threat, the immune system’s battle against it is usually the first line of defense it encounters. With vaccines and effective treatments often unavailable, the immune system’s efforts to eradicate infectious agents or infected cells are frequently the only means to combat them. Understanding the immune system as well as the infectious agent’s tactics to undermine it is of vital importance to the researcher and clinician. Instead of encylopaedic coverage of every infectious disease agent known, a set of paradigmatic infections were selected on the basis of the depth of available knowledge. This session discusses more about Immunology of Infectious Diseases.

Session 6

Diagnostic Microbiology and its Application

Diagnostic microbiology is the study of microbial identification. Scientists have been finding ways to harvest specific organisms since the discovery of the germ theory of disease. Using methods such as differential media or genome sequencing, physicians and scientists can observe novel functions in organisms for more effective and accurate diagnosis of organisms. Methods used in diagnostic microbiology are often used to take advantage of a particular difference in organisms attain information about what species it might be, often through a reference of previous studies. New studies provide information that other scientists can reference back to so scientists can have baseline knowledge of the organism he or she are working with. This session discusses more about diagnostic microbiology and its applications.

Session 5

Neurological Infection

Neurological infections encompass a large variety of conditions that invade and affect the nervous system. Despite advances in therapy and the development of early detection techniques, many of these conditions cause severe, chronic and even life threatening problems for those affected by neurological infections. Several viral infections of the central nervous system have emerged that are not yet amenable to available treatment. The most common forms of neurological infection include meningitis which causes inflammation of the meninges, membranes which cover the brain and spinal cord. The infection may be bacterial or viral. Ventriculitis causes infection to the ventricles of the brain. Encephalitis causes infection or inflammation of the brain caused by either bacteria or a virus. Meningoencephalitis, causes simultaneous infection of the meninges and the brain. Myelitis causes infection that involves the spinal cord.

Session 4

Urinary Tract Infection (UTI)

A urinary tract infection (UTI) is an infection that affects part of the urinary tract. When it affects the lower urinary tract it is known as a bladder infection (cystitis) and when it affects the upper urinary tract it is known as kidney infection pyelonephritis. Symptoms from a lower urinary tract include pain with urination, frequent urination, and feeling the need to urinate despite having an empty bladder.Symptoms of a kidney infection include fever and flank pain usually in addition to the symptoms of a lower UTI. Rarely the urine may appear bloody. In the very old and the very young, symptoms may be vague or non-specific. This session discusses more about urinary tract infection (UTI).

Session 3

Current Trends in Microbiology

Microbiology dates back to the times of Aristotle where people used to believe that living organisms are born from non-living organisms. From there, it gradually evolved further with Roger Bacon in 13thcentury calling it a Germ, the agent of disease that infects humans. Van Leuwenhoek, in 1676 observed the very first microbes called “Animalcules”. And in 1878 Sedillot coined the term Microbe. The study of microbes picked up and the field has come to known as microbiology. Microbiology has seen the golden era with major contributions from the great scientists like Redi, Needham, & Spallanzi, Louis Pasteur, Lister, Tyndall, Koch, Petri, Hesse, Jenner, Fleming & Ehrlich. Today, the research, the advanced technologies, innovations in research studies has seen microbiology expand into various sub-fields such as Pathology, Microbiology, Bacteriology, Virology, Parasitology, Mycology, and several other sub-fields. All these sub-fields are inter-dependent and blend into it making the science of microbiology a stronger one where its benefits are reaching people across the world. This session discusses in threadbare about the latest developments, trends and technologies in microbiology.

Session 2

Gastrointestinal Infection

Gastrointestinal infections are viral, bacterial or parasitic infections that cause gastroenteritis, an inflammation of the gastrointestinal tract involving both the stomach and the small intestine. Gastrointestinal infections can be caused by a large number of microorganisms, include Yersinia enterocolitica. staphylococcus aureus, salmonella and shigella, rotavirus, helicobacter pylori, escherichia coli, clostridium difficile, campylobacter, adenovirus. Symptoms include diarrhea, vomiting, and abdominal pain. Dehydration is the main danger of gastrointestinal infections, so rehydration is important, but most gastrointestinal infections are self-limited and resolve within a few days. However, in a healthcare setting and in specific populations such as newborns, infants, immunocompromized patients or elderly populations, they are potentially serious. Rapid diagnosis, appropriate treatment and infection control measures are therefore particularly important in these contexts. This session discusses more about gastrointestinal infections.

Session 1

Infectious Diseases

Infectious diseases are caused by pathogenic microorganisms such as bacteria, viruses, parasites or fungi viroids, prions, nematodes such as parasitic roundworms and pinworms, arthropods such as ticks, mites, fleas, and lice, fungi such as ringworm, and other macroparasites such as tapeworms and other helminths. The diseases are spread directly or indirectly from one person to another. Zoonotic diseases are infectious diseases of animals that cause diseases when transmitted to humans. Hosts can fight infections using their immune system. Mammalian hosts react to infections with an innate response, often involving inflammation, followed by an adaptive response. Specific medications used to treat infections include antibiotics, antivirals, antifungals, antiprotozoals, and antihelminthics. This session discusses more about infectious diseases.

Session 37

Industrial and Applied Microbiology

Applied Microbiology is the study of how to use the application of microorganisms to benefit humanity. It involves the deeper understanding of the subfields like biotechnology, enzyme technology, pharmaceutical microbiology, medicinal microbiology, agricultural biotechnology, plant microbiology, and bioremediation, food microbiology and so on. Pharmaceutical microbiology involves the study of microorganisms in relation to pharmaceuticals and further ensures the finished pharmaceutical products are pure and sterile. Other aspects include the research and development of anti-infectious drugs and the effective usage of microorganisms in manufacturing pharmaceutical products such as insulin and human growth hormone. This is how industrial microbiology complements applied microbiology. Industrial microbiology plays a major role in developing and manufacturing newer drugs to save humanity from diseases caused by parasites, viruses and bacteria etc. This session discusses and debates the latest trends in research fields, the need for newer drugs, vaccines, and antibiotics etc. The application of latest technologies like nanotechnology and robotics in these fields need to be looked into. The role of industrial microbiology and applied microbiology and how these two branches of science can be strengthened and made effective is the main focus in this session.

Session 36

Bloodstream Infections and Infective Endocarditis

Enterococcus faecalis the more common and virulent species causes serious high-inoculum infections namely infective endocarditis that are associated with cardiac surgery and mortality rates that remained unchanged for the last 30 years. Enterococci is one of the most common causes of hospital-associated infections are responsible for substantial morbidity and mortality. The best cures for these infections are observed with combination antibiotic therapy. Optimal treatment has not been fully elucidated. It highlights treatment options and their limitations and provides direction for future investigative efforts to aid in the treatment of these severe infections. While ampicillin plus ceftriaxone has emerged as a preferred treatment option mortality rates continue to be high and from a safety standpoint ceftriaxone unlike other cephalosporins promotes colonization with vancomycin resistant-enterococci due to high biliary concentrations. More research is needed to improve patient outcomes from this high-mortality disease.

Session 35

Ocular Microbial Infections

The eyes of 20 patients with primary immunodeficiency syndromes were examined and microbial cultures of their lids and conjunctivae were made. Nine patients had a history of recurrent external ocular infections and six of these had active blepharitis or blepharoconjunctivitis at the time of examination. A single pathogenic bacterium was isolated from the lids and conjunctivae of six patients with a history of infection; a mixture of two possible pathogens was cultured from eyes of three other patients. Three of the nine patients with infections had impaired B-cell and intact T-cell immunity whereas three patients had impaired B-cell and T-cell immunity. Two patients had chronic granulomatous disease in which a defect in phagocytosis was the predominant immunologic abnormality, and one patient with mucocutaneous candidiasis had intact B- and T-cell function at the time of testing. The immunodeficient patients had a higher incidence of lid or conjunctival infection the microbial flora of the lids and conjunctivae did not differ between the two groups.

Session 34

Rare Infectious Diseases

Rare Infectious Diseases cause outbreaks, epidemics, even pandemics that spread from continent to continent. Rare diseases caused by infectious agents rather than genetic or environmental factors. Some of the diseases are Acanthamoeba keratitis, Progressive vaccinia, Rat-bite fever, etc. Modern medicine and hygiene have given us some control over devastating infectious diseases, even eradicating smallpox, but, for the most part they remain with us, often preying upon the poorest and most vulnerable.Scientists think that smallpox, which causes skin lesions has emerged about 3,000 years ago in India or Egypt before sweeping across continents. The variola virus, which causes smallpox killed as many as a third of those it infected and left others scarred and blinded, according to the World Health Organization. Plague, which is caused by a bacterium carried by fleas have been blamed for decimating societies including 14th-century Europe during the Black Death when it wiped out roughly a third of the population, including in Basel. The disease comes in three forms, but the best known is bubonic plague which is marked by buboes, or painfully swollen lymph nodes.

Session 33

Respiratory Infections

Respiratory Tract Infection refers to any of a number of infectious diseases involving the respiratory tract. An infection of this type is normally further classified as an upper respiratory tract infection (URI or URTI) or a lower respiratory tract infection (LRI or LRTI). Lower respiratory infections are pneumonia which tend to be far more serious conditions than upper respiratory infections such as the common cold. Although some disagreement exists on the exact boundary between the upper and lower respiratory tracts, the upper respiratory tract is generally considered to be the airway above the glottis or vocal cords. This includes the nose, sinuses, pharynx, and larynx. Typical infections of the upper respiratory tract include tonsillitis, pharyngitis, laryngitis, sinusitis, otitis media, certain types of influenza, and the common cold. Symptoms of URIs can include cough, sore throat, runny nose, nasal congestion, headache, low grade fever, facial pressure and sneezing. The lower respiratory tract consists of the trachea (wind pipe), bronchial tubes, the bronchioles, and the lungs.

Session 32

Central Nervous System Infections

Central nervous system infections caused by viruses can cause meningitis and encephalitis. Central nervous system infections are extremely serious. Meningitis affects the membranes surrounding the brain and spinal cord. Encephalitis affects the brain itself. Some of these infections affect primarily the meninges the tissues covering the brain and spinal cord and are called meningitis. Viral meningitis is sometimes called aseptic meningitis. Meningitis can also be caused by bacteria. Viruses that infect the central nervous system brain and spinal cord include herpesviruses herpes simplex virus infections, arboviruses, coxsackieviruses, echoviruses, and enteroviruses. Many infections are mild, but others are severe and can cause death. The diagnosis of viral central nervous system infections is based on a spinal tap. Antiviral drugs are usually not effective for treatment of central nervous system infections, so children need to receive supportive measures such as fluids and drugs to control fever and pain.

Session 31

Antimicrobial Agents and Infectious Diseases

An antimicrobial is an agent that kills microorganisms or stops their growth. Antimicrobial medicines can be grouped according to the microorganisms they act primarily against. Antibiotics are used against bacteria and antifungals are used against fungi. Agents that kill microbes are called microbicidal while those that merely inhibit their growth are called biostatic. The use of antimicrobial medicines to treat infection is known as antimicrobial chemotherapy, while the use of antimicrobial medicines to prevent infection is known as antimicrobial prophylaxis. The main classes of antimicrobial agents are disinfectants such as nonselective antimicrobials such as bleach, which kill a wide range of microbes on non-living surfaces to prevent the spread of illness, antiseptics which are applied to living tissue and help reduce infection during surgery and antibiotics which destroy microorganisms within the body.

Session 30

Agricultural Microbiology

Agricultural microbiology is a branch of microbiology dealing with plant-associated microbes and plant and animal diseases. It deals with the microbiology of soil fertility such as microbial degradation of organic matter and soil nutrient transformations. Bacteria which are more dominant group of microorganisms in the soil and equal to one half of the microbial biomass in soil. Population is 100,000 to several hundred millions for gram of soil Autochthnous Zymogenous groups. Actinomycetes are intermediate group between bacteria and fungi, which are widely distributed in soil. Fungi are seen in surface layers of well-aerated and cultivated soils-dominant in acid soils. Common genera in soil are Aspergillus, Mucor, Penicillium Trichoderma, Alternaria, Rhizopus. Algae – found in most of the soils in number ranges from 100 to 10,000 per g. Protozoa are unicellular and population ranges from 10,000 to 100,000 per g of soil. Most of the soil forms are flagellates, amoebae or ciliates. Derive their nutrition by devouring soil bacteria. Found abundant in upper larger of the soil. They are regulating the biological equilibrium in soil.

Session 29

Space Microbiology

The responses of microorganisms like viruses, bacteria cells, bacterial and fungal spores, and lichens to selected factors of space microgravity, galactic cosmic radiation, solar UV radiation, and space vacuum were determined in space and laboratory simulation experiments. In general, microorganisms tend to thrive in the space flight environment in terms of enhanced growth parameters and a demonstrated ability to proliferate in the presence of normally inhibitory levels of antibiotics. The survival of microorganisms in outer space was investigated to tackle questions on the upper boundary of the biosphere and on the likelihood of interplanetary transport of microorganisms. It was found that extraterrestrial solar UV radiation was the most deleterious factor of space. Among all organisms tested, only lichens Rhizocarpon geographicum and Xanthoria elegans maintained full viability after 2 weeks in outer space whereas all other test systems were inactivated by orders of magnitude. Using optical filters and spores of Bacillus subtilis as a biological UV dosimeter, it was found that the current ozone layer reduces the biological effectiveness of solar UV by 3 orders of magnitude.

Session 28

Marine Microbiology

Marine microbiology is the study of microorganisms and non-organismic microbes that exist in saltwater environments including the Open Ocean, coastal waters, and estuaries on marine surfaces and in sediments. Defining marine microbiology means determining what exactly qualifies as a marine microorganism. Microorganism usually means any living entity too small to see with the naked eye and is often used for any single-celled organism. However, some single-celled organisms are visible alone or when gathered in communities and some multicellular animals are microscopic. Marine microbiology deals with all very small life and life-like biological phenomena like non-organismic microbes, bacteria, archaea, protozoans, single-celled algae and very small multicellular plants, fungi, and animals.

Session 27

Medical Microbiology

Medical microbiology is a branch of medical science and deals with studies on microbiology applied to medicine. It is concerned with the prevention, diagnosis and treatment of infectious diseases. In addition, this field of science studies various clinical applications of microbes for the improvement of health. There are four kinds of microorganisms that cause infectious diseases such as bacteria, fungi, parasites and viruses, and one type of infectious protein called prion. A medical microbiologist studies the characteristics of pathogens, their modes of transmission, mechanisms of infection and growth. Based on this information, a treatment can be devised. Medical microbiologists often serve as consultants for physicians, providing identification of pathogens and suggesting treatment options. Other tasks may include the identification of potential health risks to the community or monitoring the evolution of potentially virulent or resistant strains of microbes, educating the community and assisting in the design of health practices.

Session 26

Pathogenicity of Microbes

Infectious diseases are caused by microorganisms like fungi, bacteria, viruses and even parasites. They are contagious and transmitted by insects, animals and by taking contaminated food and water. Chickenpox, measles, typhoid are some of the infectious diseases. Some of the infectious diseases also lead to cancer such as Human papillomavirus causes cervical cancer; lymphoma is caused by infection of Epstein-Barr virus. An opportunistic infection is an infection caused by bacterial, viral or fungal pathogens that take advantage of a host with a weak immune system. These pathogens do not cause disease in a healthy individual that has a normal immune system but in immuno compromised patients. Examples include malnutrition, ageing, leukopenia, HIV, immunosuppressing agents and genetic predisposition. direct examination and techniques like immunofluorescence, immuno-peroxidase staining, and other immunoassays may detect specific microbial antigens. Genetic probes identify genus or species-specific DNA or RNA sequences.

Session 25

Microbes in Human Welfare

There are different microbes in different parts of the body such as skin, gut, reproductive tract etc. The most important microbes found in human body are gut microflora. The stomach microflora includes streptococcus, staphylococcus etc. These bacteria are able to survive the acidic conditions of the stomach. The intestinal flora is enterobacteriaceae. These florae are unable the development and the utility of the gut. These microbes help the gut in preventing other microbe’s colonization. They also secrete certain substances that are required for the digestion of the food. Rhizobium bacteria are found in leguminous plants such as pea, bean, etc. This bacterium helps in absorption of nitrogen required by the plants. Viruses are used as a vector for transmission of required gene during recombinant DNA Technology.

Session 24

Viral Pathogenesis, Virulence & Countermeasures

Viral Pathogenesis is nothing but the origin of a disease through viruses, while virulence is, the ability of infectious agent to produce a disease and countermeasure is an action that counters infectious agents. A viral is a germ smaller than bacteria. Without the host cells Viruses cannot grow on their own. They live in human bodies. They cause cold, fever, influenza, diarrhea, dengue, hepatitis, rabies, measles, smallpox, polio, AIDS etc. Viruses are virulent in that they have a protective coating and hence cannot be cured with antibiotics. But vaccines help contain viral infections. Viral pathogenesis is a field where evolution is taking place at rapid pace introducing the newer methodologies in developing systems biology. Some pathogens have an array of virulence factors. We need to develop newer drugs to effectively combat infectious viral diseases. This session throws open the debate on the strategies to be adopted to develop newer drugs to counter viral pathogenesis of infectious diseases. The latest in research trends, the latest technologies, robotics and nanotechnology and its applications are the need of the hour to counter pathogenesis of viral infectious diseases and their virulent factors. All the pathologists, virologists, microbiologists, bacteriologists, parasitologists, and immunologists have to focus on these issues and challenges to combat viral infections.

Session 23

Current Trends in Microbiology

Microbiology dates back to the times of Aristotle where people used to believe that living organisms are born from non-living organisms. From there, it gradually evolved further with Roger Bacon in 13thcentury calling it a Germ, the agent of disease that infects humans. Van Leuwenhoek, in 1676 observed the very first microbes called “Animalcules”. And in 1878 Sedillot coined the term Microbe. The study of microbes picked up and the field has come to known as microbiology. Microbiology has seen the golden era with major contributions from the great scientists like Redi, Needham, & Spallanzi, Louis Pasteur, Lister, Tyndall, Koch, Petri, Hesse, Jenner, Fleming & Ehrlich. Today, the research, the advanced technologies, innovations in research studies has seen microbiology expand into various sub-fields such as Pathology, Microbiology, Bacteriology, Virology, Parasitology, Mycology, and several other sub-fields. All these sub-fields are inter-dependent and blend into it making the science of microbiology a stronger one where its benefits are reaching people across the world. This session discusses in threadbare about the latest developments, trends and technologies in microbiology.

Session 22

Animal Modeling and Veterinary Microbiology

Veterinary Microbiology is a subject concerning bacterial, fungal, and viral called as microbial diseases of livestock, animals such as domesticated animals, fur-bearing animals, and poultry, fish that supply food and other useful products. Veterinary microbiology deals with the health and nutritional needs of domestic animals, birds, wildlife, and zoo animals. Animal modeling and veterinary microbiology goes hand in hand in the study of animal-health commodities, monitoring of animal health on a large scale production and biomedical research. This session throws open the discussions and debates on veterinary microbiology and animal modeling, animal nutrition, animal diseases, animal breeding and genetics, cattle and livestock management, poultry production, animal models, the latest trends in study of pathogenesis, etiology, laboratory diagnosis, treatment and prevention measures etc.

Session 21

Advances in Antimicrobials, Vaccines & Therapeutics

Antimicrobials are known as antibiotics which destroy disease-causing microorganisms and further inhibit their growth. Antimicrobials prevent and cure infections caused by bacteria, fungi, yeast, and parasites. Advanced technologies in antimicrobials, vaccines and therapeutics face number of challenges against infectious diseases. These challenges need to be addressed in research laboratories, academically and industrially with multidisciplinary teams to develop new vaccines and therapeutics to against infectious diseases. Our existing knowledge on protein structure, microbial pathogenicity and the immune system isn’t enough. More research studies needs to be done on vaccines, therapeutics and antimicrobials and their advanced technologies. This session focuses its attention on advances made in research and development of new vaccines, therapeutics and advanced antimicrobials to fight, cure, and control many types of infectious diseases. The application of nanotechnology and robotics in developing antimicrobials, vaccines and therapeutics is the need of the hour.

Session 20

Nosocomial Infections

Infections caused in hospitals, nursing homes, healthcare units are called nosocomial infections. Nosocomial infections are also known as hospital hospital-acquired infections (HAIs). Bacteria, fungus, and viruses cause HAIs, bacteria alone cause 90 percent of Nosocomial infections. Nosocomial infections are caused when immune systems are compromised during a stay in a hospital or a clinic facility. Generally, nosocomial infections are contacted from person to person, through unhygienic habits in people, and unclean surroundings, unsterilized medical instruments like respiratory machines, catheters, and other instruments. Nosocomial infections are also caused by unnecessary usage of antibiotics, which lead to bacteria becoming immune to or unaffected to irregular use of antibiotics. To avoid nosocomial infections sanitation procedures should be implemented in hospitals and clinical centers. Disinfecting the surface floors, sterilizing equipment and instruments, maintaining hygienic conditions in healthcare facilities, hospital settings, neat staff uniforms and other preventive measures need to be put in place. This session on nosocomial infections focuses on sanitation methods and examines other remedial measures to be adopted in hospital settings, clinical facilities, and various other means of keeping nosocomial infections away from the people.

Session 19

Bacterial Pathogenesis, Virulence & Countermeasures

Bacterial Pathogenesis is nothing but the origin of a disease through bacteria, while virulence is, the ability of infectious agent to produce a disease and countermeasure is an action that counters infectious agents. Countermeasures for gram-negative and gram-positive bacterial infections involve biofilms. Colonies of bacteria live in a biofilm made up principally of capsule material. Antimicrobials in tandem with chemical compounds are good in combating biofilms. Molecular targets of bacterial virulence proteins important for developing plant disease are still unclear. Yet bacterial surface component plays an important role in the pathogenesis of infectious disease. The ability of the organism to cause disease despite host resistance mechanisms directly depends on the degree of virulence. Of late, the number of new antibacterial drugs has plummeted while the number of antibiotic-resistant infections has risen. As a result, there is every need to develop newer drugs to counter infectious diseases. This session discusses in detail about what measures need to be taken to develop newer drugs to counter bacterial pathogenesis of infectious diseases. The latest trends in research, the latest technologies available, the application of robotics and nanotechnology in developing countermeasures to counter pathogenesis of infectious diseases demands the attention Pathologists, Microbiologists, Bacteriologists, Parasitologists, Virologists, and immunologists etc.

Session 49

COVID-19

Coronavirus disease (COVID-19) is an infectious disease caused by a newly discovered coronavirus.
Most people who fall sick with COVID-19 will experience mild to moderate symptoms and recover without special treatment.The virus that causes COVID-19 is mainly transmitted through droplets generated when an infected person coughs, sneezes, or exhales. These droplets are too heavy to hang in the air, and quickly fall on floors or surfaces.

session 48

Pharmaceutical Microbiology

Drug safety is a major focus of pharmaceutical microbiology. Pathogenic bacteria, fungi such as yeasts and moulds and toxins produced by microorganisms are all possible contaminants of medicines; although stringent, regulated processes are in place to ensure the risk is minimal. Pharmaceutical microbiology is an applied branch of Microbiology. It involves the study of microorganisms associated with the manufacture of pharmaceuticals e.g. minimizing the number of microorganisms in a process environment, excluding microorganisms and microbial biproducts like exotoxin and endotoxin from water and other starting materials, and ensuring the finished pharmaceutical product is sterile. Other aspects of pharmaceutical microbiology include the research and development of anti-infective agents, the use of microorganisms to detect mutagenic and carcinogenic activity in prospective drugs, and the use of microorganisms in the manufacture of pharmaceutical products like insulin and human growth hormone.

session 47

Infection, Immunity And Inflammation

Infection and Immunity Inflammation is concerned with the studies on research and how it provides new insights into the interactions between bacterial, fungal and parasitic pathogens and their hosts. Specific areas of interest include mechanisms of molecular pathogenesis, virulence factors, cellular microbiology, bacterial infection, host responses and inflammation, fungal and parasitic infections, microbial immunity and vaccines, and molecular genomics. experimental models of infection, host resistance or susceptibility, and the generation of innate and adaptive immune responses. It also focuses on research and studies on microbiome relating to host-pathogen interactions. Inflammation is a defense mechanism in the body. The immune system recognizes damaged cells, irritants, and pathogens, and it begins the healing process. It is the body’s attempt at self-protection to remove harmful stimuli and begin the healing process and so part of the body’s immune response. Infections, wounds, and any damage to tissue would not be able to heal without an inflammatory response. Chronic inflammation can eventually cause several diseases and conditions, including some cancers and rheumatoid arthritis.

session 46

Antiviral, Antibacterial, Antimicrobial Agents

An antimicrobial is an agent that kills microorganisms or stops their growth. Antimicrobial medicines can be grouped according to the microorganisms they act primarily against. The main classes of antimicrobial agents are disinfectants nonselective antimicrobials such as bleach, which kill a wide range of microbes on non-living surfaces to prevent the spread of illness, antiseptics which are applied to living tissue and help reduce infection during surgery and antibiotics which destroy microorganisms within the body. The term antibiotic originally described only those formulations derived from living micro organisms but is now also applied to synthetic antimicrobials, such as the sulphonamides, or fluoroquinolones.

session 45

Pediatric Infectious Diseases

Pediatric Infectious Diseases are those infections that cause in newborns, children, adolescents. If a child has a recurring or persistent disease caused by an infectious agent such as bacteria, a fungus, a parasite, or other rare infection, a pediatric infectious diseases specialist diagnose and treat such infected-children. Pediatrics treats disease-infected children dealing with complications such as severe complicated or recurrent infections; infections acquired during travel, Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) infection; infections in patients on immune modulating therapy; pre-transplant evaluation; transplant infections; primary immune deficiency; unexplained fevers; and infections like tuberculosis, C. difficile, Lyme disease or other tick-borne diseases or infections.

session 44

Types Of Infectious Diseases

Infectious diseases are disorders caused by pathogenic organisms – such as viruses, bacteria, or fungus. They are normally harmless but under certain conditions, some organisms can be fatal and can cause death too. Acinetobacter, Anthrax, Aspergillus, Bird flu or Avian Influenza, Bubonic plague, Clostridium difficile or C. difficile, Cyanobacteria or Cyanophyta, Chagas or Kissing Bug, Chikungunya, Cholera, Cystitis, Dengue fever, E. coli or Escherichia coli, Ebola – formerly known as Ebola haemorrhagic fever and so on. There are many more types of infectious diseases which include enteroviruses, along with rhinoviruses and human parechoviruses, which are a genus of positive-sense single-stranded RNA viruses associated with several human and mammalian diseases. The non-polio viruses are responsible for various diseases in children; although infection and illness occur most commonly in infants.

session 43

Sexually Transmitted Infections

Sexually Transmitted Infections (STI) also referred to as Sexually Transmitted Diseases (STD) or venereal diseases (VD) are infections that are commonly spread by sexual activity especially vaginal intercourse, anal sex and oral sex. More than 30 different bacteria, viruses, and parasites can be transmitted through sexual activity. Bacterial STIs include chlamydia, gonorrhea, and syphilis. Viral STIs include genital herpes, HIV/AIDS, and genital warts. Parasitic STIs include trichomoniasis. Symptoms and signs of disease may include vaginal discharge, penile discharge, ulcers on or around the genitals, and pelvic pain. STIs can be transmitted to an infant before or during childbirth and may result in poor outcomes for the baby. While usually spread by sex, some STIs can be spread by non-sexual contact with donor tissue, blood, breastfeeding, or during childbirth.

session 42

Diseases, Diagnosis And Treatment Of Microbial Infections

Major developments have taken place in diseases, diagnosis and treatment of microbial infections. Infectious disease may be an unavoidable fact of life. There are many strategies available to help protect humans from infectious diseases. With the advent of the modern pharmaceutical industry, biochemical approaches to preventing and treating disease have acquired a new level of prominence in the evolving relationship between microbes and their human hosts. Vaccinated people produce antibodies that neutralize a disease-causing virus or bacterium. They are much less likely to become infected and transmit those germs to others. Even people who have not been vaccinated may be protected by the immunity of the herd because the vaccinated people around them are not getting sick or transmitting the infection. Antibiotics are also powerful medicines that fight bacterial infections. They either kill bacteria or stop them from reproducing, allowing the body’s natural defenses to eliminate the pathogens.

session 41

Microbial Genomics And Molecular Microbiology

Molecular microbiology deals with molecular mechanisms and physiological processes of microbes and their utilization in production of biotechnology products and medicines such as vaccines, antibodies. It also involves advancement in pathogenicity of microbes. Molecular microbiology deals with the studies in microbial sciences, assessing the results of molecular studies of eukaryotic microorganisms and of prokaryotes such as bacteria and archaea and their viruses. It further studies genetic, biochemical, biophysical, bioinformatic and structural analysis leading to a deeper understanding of the molecular principles underlying basic physiological processes or mechanisms in molecular biology and microbial genomics.

session 40

Public Health Microbiology And Emerging Infectious Diseases

Some emerging infections are caused by microbes that originate in nonhuman vertebrates. Hantavirus pulmonary syndrome was first noted in New Mexico in 1993. The disease is caused by Sin Nombre virus, which is endemic in the deer mouse namely Peromyscus maniculatus. The virus is excreted in mouse droppings, and contaminated blankets or dust from floors provided opportunities for human infection. Because humans are not the natural host for Sin Nombre virus, the human disease is rare. The emergence of Lyme disease followed a similar course. The infection has probably been present in North America for millennia, but it was only in the 20th century that conditions in the northeastern US changed to favor the propagation of Lyme disease. Two other viruses that probably originated in nonhuman vertebrate hosts are HIV and the SARS coronavirus. HIV, the cause of AIDS, most likely arose from interspecies transmission between nonhuman primates and humans. Because of these public health is naturally affected.

session 39

Microbial Vaccines

Vaccination is the most effective method of preventing infectious diseases. Widespread immunity due to vaccination is largely responsible for the worldwide eradication of smallpox and the restriction of diseases such as polio, measles, and tetanus from much of the world. The effectiveness of vaccination has been widely studied and verified including the influenza vaccine, the HPV vaccine, and the chickenpox vaccine. The World Health Organization (WHO) reports that licensed vaccines are currently available for twenty-five different preventable infections. Vaccines can be prophylactic such as to prevent or ameliorate the effects of a future infection by a natural or wild pathogen, or therapeutic such as vaccines against cancer are being investigated.

session 38

Microbiology Research And Advancements

The technologic changes that have taken place during the past years lead the microbiological sciences to a new era. The study describes some recent advances in several fields of microbiology such as the sequentiation of the complete genomes of free-living microorganisms; molecular characterization of transposable-element-associated mutations leading to constitutive L-ornithine aminotransferase expression in Saccharomyces cerevisiae the genotype-based microbial identification; major technologic changes in clinical microbiology; the concept of biodiversity and its potential developments in the applied microbiology; the impact of technological advancements in microbiology and the effects of its future trends.

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