Day3

  • University of Missouri – St Louis, USA
  • Title:Diagnosing Type 2 Diabetes: Examining Distress as a Risk Factor
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Abstract:

Individuals that have established risk factors for type 2 diabetes, including advancing age, familial history of diabetes, and excessive body weight, require diagnostic evaluation to determine if they have developed type 2 diabetes. Despite literature suggesting that chronic distress can promote prolonged insulin resistance, providers risk missing a timely diagnosis that could lead to a sequela of complications. The Stress and Coping Framework for the Development of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus incorporates the impact of distress on an individual’s present degree of risk secondary to established risk factors.

Biography:

Dr. Minks works as an adjunct professor at the University of Missouri – St. Louis in the School of Nursing. He is a Jonas Veteran’s Health Scholar and has been recognized for his research efforts by the institutions he has worked for during his time in academia. Dr. Minks also works independently as a research consultant and mentor, assisting colleagues pursuing advanced degrees.

  • The Second Affiliated Hospital of Nantong University, China
  • Title:Elevated Plasma Fibrinogen Indicates Short-Term Poor Outcome in Patients with Acute Ischemic Stroke after Intravenous Thrombolysis
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Abstract:

Background: Fibrinogen is a central protein of hemostasis and a major determinant of plasma viscosity and key factor for platelet activation. In acute ischemic stroke patients, higher levels of plasma fibrinogen are associated with increased risk of unfavorable functional outcome and mortality. The aim of this study is to investigate the relationship between fibrinogen level and short-term outcome in acute ischemic stroke patients receiving intravenous thrombolysis.
Methods: This retrospective study included 176 acute ischemic stroke patients who received intravenous thrombolysis with recombinant tissue plasminogen activator and provided plasma fibrinogen level within 24 hours after stroke onset. Patients were categorized by plasma fibrinogen level: Quartile 1 (≤ 1.74 g/L), Quartile 2 (1.75–2.08 g/L), Quartile 3 (2.09–2.69 g/L), and Quartile 4 (> 2.69 g/L). The medical record of each patient was reviewed, and demographic, clinical and laboratory information was abstracted. Functional outcome at 14 days was assessed with the modified Rankin Scale.
Results: Poor outcome was present in 75 (42.6%) of the 176 patients that were included in the study (mean age, 72 years; male, 53.4%). In the patients with poor outcome, plasma fibrinogen levels were significantly higher compared with those in patients with good outcomes [2.6 (IQR, 1.8-3.2) g/L vs 2.0 (IQR, 1.7-2.4) g/L; Z= −3.90, P < 0.05]. After adjustment for potential confounding variables, higher plasma fibrinogen level on admission was associated with poor outcome (adjusted odds ratio 10.45, 95% confidence interval 1.49-73.15 for Q4:Q1; P = 0.02). According to receiver operating characteristic analysis, the best discriminating factor for poor outcome was a plasma fibrinogen level ≥ 2.585 g/L (area under the curve 0.672; sensitivity 50.7%; specificity 86.1%). Conclusion: Elevated plasma fibrinogen levels on admission are significantly associated with poor outcome after admission for acute ischemic stroke, suggesting the potential role of plasma fibrinogen level as a predictive marker for short-term poor outcome in acute ischemic stroke patients receiving thrombolytic therapy.

  • University of Cambridge, United Kingdom
  • Title:Risk of Lethality Due to Nosocomial Infections in a Tertiary-Level Hospital
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Abstract:

Infections associated with health care, previously known as nosocomial infections, constitute one of the main causes of morbidity and mortality in hospital. The aim of our study was to estimate the lethality of HAI, as well as the risk of dying from HAI versus mortality by other causes. Methods: We analyzed the historical cohort of IAAS of the Epidemiology service of a tertiary-level hospital, from 2012 to 2017. The incidence analysis and the probability of death of IAAS were made against other causes, as well as the analysis of age, period-cohort of lethality of IAAS. Results: The incidence of IAAS ranged from 27.9 to 31.5 IAAS/1000 person-days between 2012 and 2017, the probability of having an IAAS in ICU is 3.51 (CI95%: 2.93-4.20), p < 0.01, NAVM lethality against any other causes of death had a relative risk (RR) of 6.06 (CI95%: 2.91-12.6) in 2016, RR was 4.01 (CI95%: 1.59-10.09) in ITUAC in 2015, no effect of age, cohort or period in the case of IAAS was identified. Conclusions: IAAS remain to be an important public health problem in our country, without excluding our medical unit, it is important to redirect efforts to reduce them in the medium term.                                                                                                                                                          Biography:

Oscar Ovalle is a Mexican epidemiologist, who works in Social Security Mexican Institute, his experience in nosocomial infections include implementation of PCI programs in tertiary level hospitals, hand hygiene and actually collaborates in national program of infection control in Social Security Mexican Institute.

  • International Centre for Diarrhoeal Disease Research, Bangladesh
  • Title:Reservoir of Cholera and Development of a Novel Mixture to Control Cholera in Bangladesh
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Abstract:

Cholera is still a killing disease in Bangladesh and other developing countries in Asia, Africa and Latin America. Cholera epidemics occur twice every year in Bangladesh and maintain a seasonal pattern. Vibrio cholerae O1 could be isolated from patient’s stool and the environmental water during cholera seasons. However when the epidemic is over, the organism could not be isolated from the water until the next season. Therefore the question where do the bacteria go and hide and what is the inter-epidemic reservoir of cholera? This bacterium was discovered in 1884 and since then these question has been puzzling the Scientists. As cholera is a waterborne disease, scientists investigated all kinds of aquatic fauna including crab, snail, oyster, zooplankton, fish etc. but could not come up with any conclusive evidence that aquatic fauna can act as an inter-epidemic reservoir of cholera. About 100 years later, we hypothesized that there are numerous aquatic flora (plants) in the aquatic ecosystems and they can act as inter-epidemic reservoirs. Based on this hypothesis, we investigated the association of aquatic plants and the bacterium. Finally we discovered that a blue green alga, Anabina variabilis could act as an inter- epidemic reservoir. This is the first time, blue green algae was shown as the inter- epidemic reservoir. After the discovery of algae as reservoir, we tried to find out how the disease could be eradicated from Bangladesh by applying point of use water treatment strategy. Finally, we have been able to develop a mixture consisted of alum potash, bleaching powder, lime and some chemicals from the laboratory which is called “Siraj Mixture” by which the contaminated surface water could be decontaminated. This mixture cost only TK. 2.00 (US $0.01) and can purify 15 liters of surface water within 30 minutes. Field trial was conducted to see the acceptability and effectiveness of this mixture in a cholera endemic area in Bangladesh in 420 families who were provided the mixture with appropriate control for one year. Those families except one who used the mixture did not contract cholera. The innovation of the mixture is a simple solution for prevention of cholera in Bangladesh. Therefore discovery of inter-epidemic reservoir and innovation of the novel mixture are significant achievements in the history of cholera research.

Biography:

Cholera is still a killing disease in Bangladesh and other developing countries in Asia, Africa and Latin America. Cholera epidemics occur twice every year in Bangladesh and maintain a seasonal pattern. Vibrio cholerae O1 could be isolated from patient’s stool and the environmental water during cholera seasons. However when the epidemic is over, the organism could not be isolated from the water until the next season. Therefore the question where do the bacteria go and hide and what is the inter-epidemic reservoir of cholera? This bacterium was discovered in 1884 and since then these question has been puzzling the Scientists. As cholera is a waterborne disease, scientists investigated all kinds of aquatic fauna including crab, snail, oyster, zooplankton, fish etc. but could not come up with any conclusive evidence that aquatic fauna can act as an inter-epidemic reservoir of cholera. About 100 years later, we hypothesized that there are numerous aquatic flora (plants) in the aquatic ecosystems and they can act as inter-epidemic reservoirs. Based on this hypothesis, we investigated the association of aquatic plants and the bacterium. Finally we discovered that a blue green alga, Anabina variabilis could act as an inter- epidemic reservoir. This is the first time, blue green algae was shown as the inter- epidemic reservoir. After the discovery of algae as reservoir, we tried to find out how the disease could be eradicated from Bangladesh by applying point of use water treatment strategy. Finally, we have been able to develop a mixture consisted of alum potash, bleaching powder, lime and some chemicals from the laboratory which is called “Siraj Mixture” by which the contaminated surface water could be decontaminated. This mixture cost only TK. 2.00 (US $0.01) and can purify 15 liters of surface water within 30 minutes. Field trial was conducted to see the acceptability and effectiveness of this mixture in a cholera endemic area in Bangladesh in 420 families who were provided the mixture with appropriate control for one year. Those families except one who used the mixture did not contract cholera. The innovation of the mixture is a simple solution for prevention of cholera in Bangladesh. Therefore discovery of inter-epidemic reservoir and innovation of the novel mixture are significant achievements in the history of cholera research.

  • University of Santander, Colombia
  • Title:Detection of Pathogenic E. coli by Electrochemical Biosensors based on Aptamers Selected by Cell Selex
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Abstract:

Escherichia coli is an enterobacteria considered one of the most pathogenic bacteria capable of causing diseases transmitted by contaminated food and water. Among them, enterohemorrhagic E. coli (EHEC) is the group with the highest prevalence in the most aggressive cases of diarrhea and serotype O157:H7 is the most found isolated which produces cytotoxins. For this reason, the timely detection of this pathogen is a topic of great importance in public health. The detection of E. coli is conventionally done through the use of microbiological and molecular tools. However, the long periods of time to issue a result has led to the search for new strategies for the detection and rapid identification of pathogens.

Aptamers are single stranded DNA or RNA oligonucleotides whose length should be less than 100 nucleotides. They adopt a three dimensional structure capable of recognizing a wide range of target molecules with a high selectivity and affinity such as proteins, carbohydrates, small molecules and even cells whole. Aptamers are isolated by Systematic Evolution of Ligands by Exponential Enrichment (SELEX). One of potential uses of aptamers is in biosensors (aptasensors) due to their high productivity, affinity, selectivity and stability. The search for specific and sensitive aptamers for E. coli O157:H7 detection is still under study. In this work, Cell-SELEX (SELEX process adapted to cells) was performed using a 60 mer length random library by means of positive selection rounds using E. coli O157:H7 as target cell. Enterobacteria from other groups and gram positive bacteria were used as negative control. Aptamers with higher affinity were cloned, sequencing and bioinformatic analysis was carried out. These allowed the selection of candidate aptamers for in vitro assays. Finally, a specific aptamer with high affinity and ideal selectivity was selected for the detection of E. coli with a potential use for the development of aptasensors that allow early detection of acute diarrheal diseases.

Biography:

Dr Jose Luis Ropero Vega is Associate Professor in the master’s program in Biotechnology at the Universidad de Santander (Colombia). He received his PhD degree from Universidad Industrial de Santander, Colombia. He has been working on the design, synthesis and study of nanomaterials for various applications. He is currently focused on two lines of research: on the one hand, the development of nanotransporters of biomolecules based on biopolymers and magnetic nanoparticles. On the other hand, the development of biosensors for detection of microorganisms of interest in public or environmental health and biomarkers for the early detection of diseases.

  • James Cook University, Australia
  • Title:The Human T Cell Receptor: Genetics, Biology and Future Prognostics, Diagnostics and Therapeutics using this System
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Abstract:

Humans have an estimated 1012 T cells. T cells are an extremely potent force in maintaining health, fitness and homeostasis of our bodies. While T cells are typically known for eradicating pathogens and immunoediting (eradicating cancer cells), cross-reactive T cells are thought to be the engines
behind autoimmunity. Interestingly, recent data suggest that T cells can even control the health and fitness of our organs such as the brain, central nervous system, kidney, liver, gut and the skin. T cells can regulate pain psychological stress and even repair tissue. New evidence also shows that T cells can regulate spatial learning and memory and even control heartbeat. These diverse functions are typically mediated via the T cell receptor (TCR) on the T cell membrane. Here, I will give an overview of human TCR genetics and biology and progress in understanding using NGS. This new information opens avenues to use the T cell receptor for prognostics, diagnostics and therapeutics.

Biography:

Professor John Miles is a Principal Research Fellow in Molecular Immunology at James Cook University, Co-Director of the Centre for Tropical Bioinformatics and Molecular Biology and Theme Leader for the Centre for Molecular Therapeutics. He specializes in TCR immunogenetics, molecular biology, genetic recombination, biochemistry, T cell function and structural biology and TCR bioinformatics. Professor Miles received a BSc. degree in physiology and microbiology, a BSC. Honors degree in virology and a PhD in Immunology from the University of Queensland, Australia. Professor Miles has received 20 prizes and awards for his work including the Centenary Medal from her Majesty Queen Elizabeth II for Distinguished Service to Medical Research and the Community.

  • The Hashemite University, Jordan
  • Title:Inactivation of Stressed Foodborne pathogens in Hummus Using Gamma Irradiation
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Abstract:

Hummus (chickpea dip) is one of the most popular traditional foods in Middle East countries including Jordan. Recently, the incidence of pathogens and outbreaks associated with hummus has increased worldwide. Most common bacterial foodborne pathogens grow or survive in hummus are Salmonella, Escherichia coli and Listeria monocytogenes. Therefore, this study aimed to i) investigate the feasibility of using gamma radiation to eliminate Salmonella spp., L. monocytogenes and E. coli O157:H7 in hummus, ii) evaluate the effect of desiccation, heat stresses and cold on the sensitivity of these microbes toward irradiation. Hummus samples were inoculated with fresh or desiccated, heat, cold stressed cocktail cultures of Salmonella spp., L. monocytogenes or E. coli O157:H7 individually at level of ca 107 CFU/g and then exposed to gamma radiation at doses of. The populations of unstressed E. coli O157:H7, L. monocytogenes and Salmonella were reduced by 0.6-3.9, 1.0-3.0 and 0.7-2.9, respectively by 0-0.6 KGy of gamma irradiation. Desiccation, heat, cold and acid stresses prior irradiation treatment did not affect the resistance of E. coli O157:H7 toward gamma radiation. However, stressed L. monocytogenes and Salmonella cells were more resistant to gamma irradiation compared to control (unstressed) cells. This study approved the efficiency of low levels of gamma irradiation to reduce the risk of unstressed and desiccation, acid or heat stressed pathogens in hummus, although the environmental stresses enhanced the resistance of L. monocytogenes and Salmonella.

Biography:

Amin N. Olaimat is an assistant professor of Food Safety and Hygiene at the Department of Clinical Nutrition and Dietetics, Faculty of Allied Health Sciences in the Hashemite University, Jordan. Olaimat completed his Ph.D. in Food Science from University of Manitoba, Canada and obtained his BSc. and Msc. degrees from the Jordan University of Science and Technology, Jordan. Olaimat has published 50 peer-reviewed papers in reputed international journals and 25 conferences beside 1 book chapter. His current research interests include the risk analysis and studying the microbial quality and safety of foods, development, use and evaluation of natural antimicrobials to enhance the safety and extend the shelf-life of foods, development of active packaging materials to improve the quality and safety of foods, and bacterial stress response in food environment and its impact on the irradiation and thermal inactivation of foodborne pathogens.

  • University of Santander, Colombia
  • Title:Ib-M2 Antimicrobial Peptide: Immobilization and Antibacterial Activity Agains E. coli O157:H7
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Abstract:

Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) have attracted importance as new potential drugs due to the advantages that they exhibit regarding conventional antibiotics. These compounds are characterized by having a broad antimicrobial spectrum and multiple mechanisms of action, which hinders the development of resistance in microorganisms. The ib-m2 peptide has been reported as promising for use against gram-negative bacteria such as Escherichia coli O157:H7. Despite the above, the clinical use of this type of compounds is limited due to their short half-life, mainly because they are susceptible to degradation by proteases. Therefore, a proposed alternative to overcome these disadvantages is the immobilization of peptides on surfaces that are biocompatible. Polymeric matrices have attracted great interest as new systems in the development of controlled release of biologically active molecules due to their versatility, biocompatibility, and biodegradability. On the other hand, the use of magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (IONPs) has gained attention as supports of the above. This work presents the preparation, characterization, and bioactivity of two types of immobilization: polymeric beads of sodium alginate-chitosan (Alg- CH) and IONPs. The polymeric matrices obtained were prepared by chemical crosslinking used CaCl2 and presented sensitivity to changes in pH the release of Ib-M2 and pH values of 6.5. For the other hand, the IONPs were prepared by co-precipitation in aqueous medium using Fe2+ and Fe3+ salt precursors (molar ratio 1:2). The nanoparticles were coated with chitosan (1% w/w in acetic acid 2% v/v). The immobilization of Ib-M2 was carried out by the formation of an amide bond between carboxyl groups of the peptide and amine groups of chitosan using TBTU and DIPEA (N,N- Diisopropylethylamine). The as-prepared IONPs and the Ib-M2/IONPs bioconjugate were characterized by DLS, SEM, TEM, FT-IR, XRD, XPS and magnetic hysteresis measurements. The antibacterial activity of the Ib-M2/IONPs and Ib-M2 in beads Alg-CH was evaluated by the microdilution procedure using a synthetic aqueous sample contaminated with Escherichia coli O157:H7. The results showed that the percentage of immobilization of Ib-M2 was between 55 and 65% with the used procedure. Also, it was possible to reach a percentage of inhibition of the growth of E. coli O157:H7 of 99% after 24 h using an immobilized peptide concentration of 6.25 µM.

Biography:

Dr. Flórez-Castillo is an associate professor at the University of Santander in Colombia. Her research focuses on the design of antimicrobial peptide and the immobilization system of biomolecules. Within the immobilization systems, she has worked with are the polymer systems of alginate, chitosan, and PVA. As well as iron oxide nanoparticles.

  • Institute of Bioengineering and Nanotechnology, Singapore
  • Title: Nanostructured Antimicrobial Technology
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Abstract:

Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) is one of the most critical challenges in our modern society. It was predicted that there could be more than 10 million death related to AMR in 2050. The overuse of antibiotics, including non-therapeutic applications such as agriculture and environmental disinfection, represents one of the main causes for antimicrobial resistance. On the other hand, up to 80% of the germs are transmitted via surface contact. Therefore, killing bacteria on the frequently touched surfaces is an effective way to avoid cross-infection. The common method to kill bacteria on these surfaces relies on organic disinfectants (small molecules and polymers or organic coatings) which may lead to secondary contamination and drug resistance. Herein, we will introduce novel non-resistance, nano-structured antimicrobial technologies and green surface disinfection technology. Our disinfection surface technology coats various surfaces with nanopatterns which kill adhered bacteria and fungi due to their physical structure through a rupturing mechanism or due to secondary ROS mechanism. These disinfecting surface and antimicrobial technologies are clean and safe, require no externally applied chemicals and can reduce healthcare-associated infections.

Biography:

Dr. Yugen Zhang is a Group Leader at the Institute of Bioengineering and Nanotechnology (IBN), A-Star, Singapore. He graduated from the University of Science and Technology of China (USTC), where he received his PhD in Chemistry in 1992. After his PhD, he joined USTC as a faculty member and was promoted to Professor in 1999. He visited Riken (Japan) (1996 to 1997, 2000 to 2001), where he worked as visiting scholar in Prof. Zhaomin Hou’ group. Before he joined IBN in 2004, he had been working at Harvard University as a post-doctoral research associate in Prof. RH Holm’s group (2002-2004). His main research areas are green catalysis, nanomaterials and biomaterials.

  • Umm Al-Qura University, Saudi Arabia
  • Title:Acute Rhinosinusitis During Hajj Season 2014: Prevalence of Bacterial Infection and Patterns of Antimicrobial Susceptibility
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Abstract:

Background: The presence of large number of pilgrims during Hajj in Makkah region increases the risk of respiratory diseases. In this study, we aimed to assess the bacteriology of acute rhinosinusitis (ARS) during Hajj season and to demonstrate the antimicrobial susceptibility patterns that should guide the clinicians towards more appropriate antibiotic use.
Methods: Patients with ARS presenting during Hajj season of 2014 were prospectively enrolled. According to EPOS2012 criteria. Sampling of sinus secretions was performed from the middle meatus adjacent to the maxillary sinus ostium via endoscopic guidance. Over all, the study has covered all ENT, emergency and outpatient departments in Hajj.
Results: Two hundred and twenty six patients with ARS were enrolled in the study. Pathogenic bacteria were identified in 93 (41.2%) patients. Of the 93 patients with bacterial ARS, Staphylococcus aureus was isolated in 46 (49.5%) patients, out of which 13 (28.3%) were methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA).The second most common group of bacterial isolates was Enterobacteriaceae such as Escherichia coli, and various Klebsiella species. Antibiotic sensitivity showed that methicillin-sensitive Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA) was also sensitive to cephalosporins, quinolones and clindamycin, while exhibiting relatively less sensitivity rates to amoxicillin-clavulinic acid and macrolides.
Conclusion: Our study demonstrates the importance of assessing the bacteriology of ARS to help implement guidelines for proper treatment and prevention protocols during Hajj season.

Biography:

Professor and Consultant Of otolaryngology head and neck Surgery, Faculty of Medicine, and director of the simulation center for medical education at the Umm Al-QuraUniversity , head of Ophthalmology and otolaryngology department , Faculty of Medicine at the Umm Al-Qura University . and a Reviewer and editor of the Pan Arab Juornal of Rhinology ( PARS ) .
Dr. Marglani is Canadian board certified in otolaryngology head and neck surgery, 2005 from Ottawah ,Canada .
He has fellowship in Rhinology ,Endoscopic sinus and skull base surgery ,Vancouver ,BC, Canada.
He published more than 30 scientific research papers in otolaryngology , infectious diseases, and sinuses diseases prevention , treatment methods in ENT surgery and surgical educational .

  • Jiangsu Academy of Agricultural Sciences, China
  • Title:Broad Host Range Phage vB-LmoM-SH3-3 Reduces the Risk of Listeria Contamination in Two Types of Ready-To-Eat Food
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Abstract:

Listeria monocytogenes is a food borne pathogen causing listeriosis in humans and animals. L. monocytogenes can tolerate severe environments and food processing conditions by forming biofilms and becoming resistant to disinfectants. Thus, it is important to develop new strategies to control the contamination of L. monocytogenes and keep food safety. In the present study, a new L. monocytogenes phage vB-LmoMSH3-3 (designated as phage SH3-3) was isolated from a food processing plant. The genome of phage SH3-3 shares homology with multiple non-Listeria phages, but shares low similarity with classical Listeria phages. Phage SH3-3 showed widely lytic activity to Listeria spp. including L. monocytogenes, L.innocua and L. welshimeri. With an efficient minimal inhibitory concentration, phage SH3-3 could also inhibit the formation of the dense and net-like structure of the L. monocytogenes biofilm. Moreover, phage SH3-3 showed high efficacy against L. monocytogenes in salmon meat and orange juice. Therefore, phage SH3-3 could be potentially used as a natural biocontrol preservative to reduce L. monocytogenes contamination in ready-to-eat food and during the processing stages of food production.

Biography:

Zhang Hui is a PhD, professor and postgraduate student supervisor. From 2012 to 2013, she was the visiting scholar to Guelph Food Research Center of Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada. From 2014 to 2015, he was the visiting scholar to the College of Agriculture and Natural Resources, University of Connecticut.
In the past five years, Zhang Hui has been mainly engaged in research on monitoring and control of zoonotic pathogen contamination, focusing on research and development of key food safety prevention and control technologies and products
based on bacteriophage technology. As the Director of China Food-borne Microorganism Detection Technology Innovation Alliance, Dr. Zhang presided over projects under National Natural Science Foundation of China and Jiangsu Provincial Independent Innovation Fund and the preparation of industrial standards of Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Affairs. She published more than 50 papers in well-known journals such as PNAS, Scientific Reports, Food Microbiology and Food Control, obtained 11 authorized invention patents. Moreover, she won the second prize of Jiangsu Science and Technology Award and Outstanding Invention Patent Award of Jiangsu Province.

  • HCM National University, Vietnam
  • Title:Virulent Factors, Whole-Genome Phylogenetic and Comparative Genomic Analysis of Extreme-Drug-Resistant VAP Acinetobacter baumannii Strain in a Vietnam Hospital
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Abstract:

Background: Acinetobacter baumannii is the leading multidrug resistant agent in Vietnamese health care systems in the second decade of the 21st century. Nowadays, an effective treatment for Acinetobacter baumannii carrying the genes encoding the enzymes hydrolyzed carbapenemase the most important problem for the clinicians. Objective: Determination of antibiotic resistance characteristics, ratio of genes related to carbapenem resistance and in-vitro bactericidal effect of antibiotic combinations on A. baumannii. Method: Retrospective descriptive analysis study. Carbapenem-resistant A. baumannii were collected from patients with HAP in Thongnhat General Hospital of Dongnai Province from January 2013 to December 2017. Results: Number of A. baumannii strains studied was 105. A. baumannii was 100% sensitive to colistin and 99.1% with tigecycline. 100% A. baumannii has MIC of meropenem ≥ 32µg/ml. There are 87% MIC colistin with 1µg/ml and 0.9% MIC tigecycline> 2 µg/ml. Meropenem/colistin and meropenem/rifampicin combinations have synergistic and additive effects with very high rates, 94.3% and 81.9%, respectively, to A. baumannii. However, tigecycline/colistin combination only gives synergistic additive effects at a rate of 36.2%. The effect of colistin at concentration of 1 µg/ml or rifampicin at a concentration of 2 µg/ml under MIC can convert A. baumannii from non-sensitive to meropenem to susceptible ones at high rates. Class D carbapenemase coding genes include blaOXA-51, blaOXA-23, blaOXA-58 distributed in A. baumannii with 97.1%; 79% and 7.6%, respectively. Whereas, blaNDM-1 carbapenemase gene of class B was distributed in A. baumannii with the rate of 13.3% and no blaKPC gene of class A carbapenemase encoded in A. baumannii was recorded. In this study, 93.3% of carbapenem resistant A. baumannii strains carried ISAba1. Conclusion: A. baumannii is resistant to carbapenem due to carrying multiple carbapenemase genes and in-vitro tigecycline/colistin combination for a lower bactericidal effect for A. baumannii than meropenem/colistin and meropenem/rifampicin.

Biography:

Dr. Nguyen Si-Tuan graduated with a master’s degree in Molecular microbiology at Paris sud11 University in 2010 and graduated with a PhD’s degree in Biotechnology at Ho Chi Minh National University in 2014. He has published 8 ISI papers with 18 citations and 3 h-index. I am the Head of the Department of Clinical Microbiology of Thongnhat General Hospital of Dongnai Province, Vietnam from 2014 to the present.
Activities (From 2013 – 2019):
➢ Speaker at 12th ASIAN Network for Clinical Laboratory Standardization and Harmonization (ANCLS) International Congress in 2013.
➢ Poster presentation at 11th International Symposium on the Biology of Acinetobacter in 2017.
➢ Speaker at the 8th ASEAN Conference on Tropical Medicine and Parasitology (ACTMP) 2018.
➢ Poster presentation at the ASM (American Society for Microbiology) Conference on Rapid Applied Microbial Next-Generation Sequencing and Bioinformatics Pipelines, September 23 – 26, 2018 in Tysons, VA, USA.
➢ Speaker at the 1st International Congress on Microbiology and One – Health in 2018.
➢ Speaker at the 4th Pan – ASIAN Biomedical Science Conference help in 2018.
➢ Speaker at the 7th European Clinical Microbiology Congress, November 01 – 02, 2018 at London, United Kingdom.
➢ Speaker at the 9th International Congress of the Asia Pacific Society of Infectious Control in 2019

  • Beni Suef University, Egypt
  • Title:Combination of Pesticides
  • Time :

Abstract:

Combination of pesticides; acetamiprid, flutolanil and etofenprox are usually used for tomato fruits for protecting them against pest infection. Generally, pesticides, residues could be one of the health hazard sources. Two specific simple sensitive chromatographic methods are developed for simultaneous estimation of the concerning pesticides’ residues using simple economic steps of field sample preparation. The first method is HP- TLC method. Hexane: methanol: acetone: glacial acetic acid (8: 2: 0.5: 0.1, by volume) is proposed as a developing system. The second one is RP- HPLC. Acetonitrile: water (75: 25, v/v) is proposed as a mobile phase. The recommended methods are completely validated regarding ICH guidelines. Their means percentages and standard deviations of accuracy range 100.32± 0.89- 99.27± 0.9. The methods’ repeatability and intermediate precision relative standard deviation percentages range 0.395 & 0.894. They are successfully applied for estimating the pesticides in pure and commercial forms and field samples.

Biography:

Dr. Hegazy holds a BSc in pharmacy from Cairo University, Egypt. She received her PhD in pharmaceutical analysis from Cairo University, Egypt/ University of Alberta, Canada.
Her research interests are in food chemistry, microbiological assessment, environmental and pharmaceutical analysis and detection in applied forms and nanoparticles and screening of anticancer factors.
She is the founder Department of Analytical Chemistry and the founder and director of the Alumni Sector in the newly developed Faculty of Pharmacy, Beni Suef University, Egypt. She is the president of the Council of Alumni of her faculty.

  • University of Cranfield, UK
  • Title:Silo Management Decision Support Systems (DSS) for Reducing the Nutritional Values and Mycotoxin Contamination in Cereals
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Abstract:

Cereals and nuts can be stored during short or long term. This step is critical in the Food Chain regarding to Food Safety and Quality of the products. Products insufficiently dried or a bad silo management could imply mycotoxin contamination levels higher than the legally allowed. Traditionally in silos, only temperature (T) and relative humidity (RH) sensors are currently being used. As novelty, the use of ATEX complain carbon dioxide (CO2) sensors as a tool of silo management has been developed.
Preliminary studies in laboratory scale in Cranfield University (UK) and Pilot works in Barilla Company (Italy) had shown that the CO2 it is an early indicator of the biological activity in stored cereals compared to T and RH. Additionally, experiments performed under different interacting environment conditions in wheat and maize inoculated with Fusarium graminearum and Aspergillus flavus had shown a good correlation between fungal growth and CO2 production. It is worthy of mentioning that in the same experiments also a good correlation regarding mycotoxin production in several conditions have been found. Also, high CO2 levels are linked with high Dry Matter Losses and therefore, with nutritional losses and poor overall quality. A real-time CO2 model has been developed integrating all the data obtained at Cranfield University and at Barilla company, establishing the respiration baseline of the commodity, that responds with alert system derivate from the different level of risk, which is translate in a traffic light (green: safe, yellow: first alert, and red: high risk) for easy understanding of the final users.
Since CO2 increases could indicate biological activity from different sources (mycotoxigenic and non-mycotoxigenic fungi), in parallel, a different biological model for specific cereal-fungi-toxin have been currently developed (ex. Wheat-F. graminearum-zearalenone) based on T and RH. Therefore, when the CO2 main model alert that high risk, the second model based on the boundary conditions based on T and RH highlight the probability of fungal growth and mycotoxin production in a particular commodity.
Finally, from these models, the silo managers have powerful Decision Support Systems (DSS) to manage the product according to the expected risk. Safe product: human consumption; intermediate risk: a) fast process, b) animal feed application of adsorbent; and, high risk: bio combustibles.

Biography:

Dr Garcia Cela has a strong background in Agricultural Engineering and Food Science and Technology. Her career has been mainly focused on the area of Food Safety management regarding the presence of mould and their toxins along the Food Chain. Her area of expertise is the ecology and metabolomic of fungus. Due to her strong background in food processing and engineering she is also an expert in Food Quality and Certifications applied to the food industries, like the BBRC or the IFS.
She joined Cranfield University (CU) as a Research Fellow in Applied Mycology in September 2016. Currently, she is focusing her work in the Horizon 2020 European Union’s project: MyToolBox “Safe Food and Feed through an Integrated Toolbox for Mycotoxin Management” (https://www.mytoolbox.eu/) in the WP02 and WP03. In this project, her research is mainly focused on the development of biological models that can be implemented as part of different Decision Support Systems (DSS) in cereal and nuts silos. The final goal is to minimise the mycotoxin contamination and allow the different agents to take rapid remedial actions and reduce the waste due to mould spoilage. Besides, she is developing guidelines for Good Silo Management.
She is an active researcher with several publications each year in peer-review journals (Scopus Hindex=7), as well as in international conferences. She is an internationally recognized early career scientist with regular invitations to review research articles in International Journals. She is a member of Society for Applied Microbiology and the Royal Society of Biology.
She is an Associate Fellow of the High Education Academy in the UK and an active member of the teaching team for CU’s MSc course in Food Chain Systems (more than 50 hours of lectures per year, group case studies, practical and individual and group project supervision). To sum up, she is also supervising MSc and PhD students.
Despite her mainly research line is focused on the area of Food Safety and Quality, she is currently exploring new areas in which her expertise and skills can provide new approaches towards the application of improved environmentally friendly strategies. In this sense, she is also collaborating with different research groups like the xxxxxxx and xxxxx (vinod y Sameer)
The main goal of Dr Garcia-Cela is to develop viable technologies that can be transferred to society, enhancing in this way the relationship between academia, the industry and the final consumers.

  • Medical University of South Carolina, USA
  • Title: Quantification of Total Bacterial 16S rDNA in Human Plasma as a Marker of Microbial Translocation in Vivo
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Abstract:

Increased systemic microbial translocation contributes to the pathogenesis of various diseases. The magnitude of microbial translocation is measured by total bacterial 16S ribosomal DNA (rDNA) in plasma using quantitative PCR (qPCR). An evaluation of human systemic microbial translocation in vivo is crucial for revealing microbial product-mediated infl ammation, innate immune activation and immune perturbation. The human gut harbors 1012 microorganisms per gram, and this is 10 times more than those from other sites. The intestinal mucosal barrier prevents pathogen invasion and nonpathogenic antigens residing within the intestinal lumen. Notably, the gut mucosal barrier prevents the host from being injured by pathogens, yet allows a very low level of bacterial product translocation to the system to maintain systemic immune homeostasis, as demonstrated by immune deficiencies in mice raised in sterile conditions. Therefore, the quantification of total bacterial 16S rDNA in plasma is used to assess human and animal systemic microbial translocation in vivo, and thus is a great tool to study the role of systemic microbial products in disease pathogenesis and mucosal barrier function. The bacterial 16S rDNA assay can analyze 90% of bacterial strains, including Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. However, use of this assay is highly challenging because of its high technical demands and the risk of contamination. Nonetheless, we have performed this assay successfully and have published several studies regarding the assay’s use. A detailed protocol and results from different cohorts for quantifying total bacterial 16S rDNA in plasma is reported here.

Biography:

Dr. Jiang has completed her MD from the Capital Medical University, Beijing, China and postdoctoral studies from Case Western Reserve University, School of Medicine, Cleveland, Ohio, USA. Currently, she is the associate professor in the Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Medical University of South Carolina, USA. She has published more than 58 papers in reputed journals as the indepedent investigator since 2012 and has been serving as a reviewer for US National Institute of Health grant review, as well as an editorial board member of Journal of Neuroimmune Pharmacology.

  • Santiago de Cali University, Columbia
  • Title:Standardization of a Multiplex Real-Time PCR Test for the Identification of Angiostrongylus cantonensis, A. costaricensis and A. vasorum
  • Time :

Abstract:

Angiostrongyliasis is a disease caused by Angiostrongylus nematodes that is present worldwide. The infections with the highest impact on human and animal health are caused by A. cantonensis, A. costaricensis, and A. vasorum. Clinical forms of the disease in humans are eosinophilic meningitis and abdominal angiostrongyliasis, while the most common effect on dogs are cardiopulmonary damages. It is deemed as an emerging disease as the result of the global dissemination of the African snail Lissachatina fulica, an intermediary host of these parasites. The few diagnostic methods for Angiostrongylus spp. are for a single parasite, costly, low sensitive and not available worldwide . It is urgent to develop a sensitive, specific and accessible diagnostic tool for the control of human and animal angiostrongyliasis. Objective: Standardization of a multiplex qPCR for the diagnosis of three Angiostrongylus of clinical importance. Results: The design of primer and taq-man probes allowed the identification of the parasites from the ITS-2 sequence shared by the three species. qPCR did not amplify African snail DNA, human DNA and other parasites. The threshold cycle values for positive DNA controls were: 21 for Angiostrongylus cantonensis, 22 for A. costaricensis, and 31 for A. vasorum. In negative controls, the threshold cycle was zero. qPCR showed an amplification efficiency of 2 (100%). Conclusions: The standardized technique was able to identify and differentiate specifically the three Angiostrongylus species in the same qPCR reaction.

Biography:

Dr. Ruben Eduardo Varela Miranda, is PhD from Salamanca University (Spain). He is proffesor in the school medicine and science basic in the Universidad Santiago de Cali (Colombia). He has published papers in reputed journals and his has a line the research in drug discovery trought identification new molecular target in proteins kinase in trypanosomatid parasites. The professor in 2018 developed a molecular test for the identification of three parasites Angiostrongylus (A. cantonensis, A.vasorum, A. costaricensis) by multiple PCR in African snails.

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