Day2

  • University of Alabama, USA
  • Title:Species Differences In “Core Biochemistry” Among the Bacteria
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Abstract:

Bacterial DNA gyrase catalyzes ATP-dependent negative supercoiling of plasmid and chromosomal DNA. The GyrA and GyrB subunits that make up a tetramer subunit enzyme are essential in many bacteria and are important chemotherapeutic targets for treating pathogenic bacterial infection. DNA replication, RNA transcription, homologous recombination, site-specific recombination, gene transposition, and chromosome condensation are all influenced by negative supercoil density. E. coli and Salmonella Typhimurium are the most thoroughly studied organisms from a supercoil dynamics perspective. They share a conserved chromosomal gene order and have highly conserved homologous proteins involved in DNA replication regulation of transcription and DNA topology. Nonetheless, E. coli maintains plasmid and chromosomal DNA at a significantly (15%) higher supercoil density than Salmonella. E. coli is actually addicted to high supercoiling since it stops growth and cell division when the chromosomal DNA supercoiling falls by 15%, i.e. down to the level of WT Salmonella. Surprisingly, Salmonella can carry out well ordered DNA replication and cell division cycles in cells that lack all diffusible negative supercoils. Moreover, different phenotypes for identical mutations in GyrA, GyrB, and the MukBEF DNA condensin as well many other proteins prove that highly conserved proteins have evolved different roles in “core biochemistry” directing gene expression and chromosome dynamics in each species. Some implications of species divergence and a tool box of genetic modules designed to measuring in vivo bacterial supercoil density and transcription elongation rates around the genome will be presented.

Biography:

N. Patrick Higgins (b. 1946) completed undergraduate studies at Wichita State University in 1969 and earned a Master’s degree in Biology in 1970. He was drafted and then in 1972 started his Ph.D. degree in the Department of Microbiology at the University of Chicago graduating 1976 for work with Dr. Bernard Strauss in the Department of Microbiology. They published a model for error free DNA repair that predicted replication fork reversal, which has been confirmed in both bacterial and mammalian DNA repair systems. He continued work at the U of Chicago in the Department of Biochemistry as a postdoc in Nicholas Cozzarelli’s lab where he was first to purify two subunits of DNA gyrase and reconstitute the enzyme in vitro. This work prove which subunits were targets of two important drugs, novobiocin and nalidixic acid. In 1979 he joined the faculty of the University of Wyoming and established a collaboration with Toto Olivera at the University of Utah. Together they were first to analyze the mechanism of bacteriophage Mu transposition in vitro with biochemical and molecular biology techniques. After moving to Birmingham in 1984 to the Department of Biochemistry , he was promoted to Associate Professor in 1985 and made a full Professor in 1991. In 2001 he was the E. A. Watkins Visiting Professor at his alma mater Wichita State University. He was also a co-director with Dr. Lisa Guay-Woodford of the new Heflin Center for Human Genetics in the Medical School serving to 2009. He directed the UAB Fermentation Facility from 2000 – 2014, and currently holds the rank of Professor Emeritus of Biochemistry and Molecular Genetics at the University of Alabama at Birmingham. He remains active in his lab.

  • University of Ottawa, Canada
  • Title:Recent Advances in Indoor Air Decontamination to Reduce Pathogen Spread
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Abstract:

The wide variety of microorganisms released into indoor air from animate and inanimate sources often include microbial pathogens and allergens, and exposure to them may be directly by inhalation or indirectly by contact with surfaces contaminated with airborne particles. Therefore, safe and effective microbial decontamination of indoor air can reduce the risk of exposure to such harmful agents. However, standardized and field-relevant test protocols remain unavailable to assess the claims of technologies already marketed or under development. This presentation will describe an economical and versatile aerobiology chamber and its use to study physical and chemical technologies to remove/inactivate a variety of human pathogens in experimentally contaminated indoor air.

Biography:

He is Professor Emeritus of Microbiology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Ottawa, and Chief Scientific Officer, CREM Co Labs, Mississauga, Ontario, Canada. He researches the environmental fate of human pathogens and promotes sustainable technologies for interrupting the environmental spread of infectious agents. He is an advisor to the World Health Organization, the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development and other national and international agencies. He has published >200 peer-reviewed papers and has delivered nearly 370 invited lectures in some 30 countries. The numerous awards he has received include the Queen Elizabeth II Diamond Jubilee Medal, Distinguished Microbiologist Award of the Canadian College of Microbiologists and the Hygeia Gold Medal of the Rudolf Schülke Foundation (Hamburg, Germany).

  • Czech Academy of Sciences, Czech Republic
  • Title:Development of HIV-1 Env Epitopes-Mimicking Protein Binders Targeted to Broadly Neutralizing Antibodies as Potential Vaccine Component
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Abstract:

Neutralizing epitopes of surface glycoproteins are poorly immunogenic and carbohydrates-based immunogens are generally less effective in generation of long-lasting antibody responses. Therefore, proteins mimicking glycan/peptide epitopes recognized by virus neutralizing antibodies represent a valuable alternative for the development of non-cognate protein ligands as potential preventative vaccine components. Highly complex combinatorial libraries derived from scaffolds of small and robust protein domains represent a powerful tool for the identification of protein binders mimicking surface glycopeptide epitopes of viruses or bacteria that are recognized by broadly neutralizing antibodies. We use our own concept of a highly complex combinatorial library derived from scaffold of 46 amino acid albumin-binding domain (ABD) and, in combination with ribosome display, we target broadly neutralizing antibody (bNAb) IgG to identify unique binding candidates recognizing paratopes of the selected bNabs. In our proof-of-concept study we identified binders called VRA proteins that mimic gp120 epitope of VRC01 bNAb. The generation of other noncognate proteins ligands will be also presented as well as their potential for HIV-1 vaccine development.

Biography:

Petr Maly is head of Laboratory of Ligand Engineering at the Institute of Biotechnology, Czech Academy of Sciences in Vestec, Czech Republic. He studied at Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Science, Charles University in Prague, Czech Republic (1980-1985) and completed doctorate at the Institute of Molecular Genetics ASCR (IMG) in Prague. He spent postdoctoral fellowship (1992-1995) at Department of Pathology and Howard Hughes Medical Institute, The University of Michigan Medical School, Ann Arbor, USA, in the laboratory of Prof. John B. Lowe where he published several substantial papers related to in vivo role of mammalian glycosyltransferases. Since 1998 to 2005 he was a research group leader at the IMG in Prague. As a visiting scientist he also worked at Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, College of Medicine, University of Oklahoma, USA. He also was participating investigator of Consortium for Functional Glycomics (USA, 2001–2008) and Member of Editorial Board (2001-2005) and Editor (since 2003) of the Czech journal “Biologicke listy” (Biological Letters). Since 2008, he has been working on the development of combinatorial protein libraries derived from small protein scaffolds, and high-affinity protein binders with therapeutic and diagnostic potential.

  • Islamic Azad University, Iran
  • Title:Determination of COVID-19 Prevalence with Regards to Age Range of Patients Referring to the Hospitals Located in Western Tehran, Iran
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Abstract:

We decided to examine suspected samples of pneumonia outbreak caused by the new coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 and provide information about the mortality rate due to this infection in different age groups in Iran. In this descriptive-cross-sectional study, a total of 784 samples of naso/oropharyngeal swabs of suspected patients with COVID-19 symptoms who had referred to Imam Khomeini, Shahid Fayaz-Bakhsh and Modarres hospitals in Tehran from February 24, 2020 to March 24, 2020 were examined by RT-PCR method. The highest incidence of the disease was within the age group of 50– 59 years, while the lowest rate was in the 0–9 years age group. The highest rate of positive samples in terms of COVID-19 among suspected individuals was for patients > 80 years of age (89%) and the highest mortality rate was in the age range of 70–79 years (31%) and > 80 years (30), respectively. In terms of recovery, the highest rate was in the 30–39 years age group (65.2%). Statistical analysis showed that mortality significantly increased in the age group of > 60 years old and in fact, mortality was significantly associated with older ages. According to the results of the current study, the prevalence of COVID19 in lower age (0–9 years old) is lower and mortality rate is higher in older ages as significant increase in mortality was observed in those aged > 60 years old. However, further epidemiological studies on a larger study population in different regions of Iran are needed to explain the prevalence, clinical features, and course of the disease.

Biography:

My name is Hamidreza Kalantari. I am a PhD student in Microbiology in the university of Shahr-e- Qods, Tehran, Iran. I have passed my theoretical part of the PhD program. Currently, I work on my thesis that is about the vaccine of Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Also, during the pandemic of COVID-19, I researched on SARS-CoV-2 that two articles about it were published.
1- Kalantari H, Tabrizi AHH, Foroohi F. Determination of COVID-19 prevalence with regards to age range of patients referring to the hospitals located in western Tehran, Iran. Gene reports.
2020;21:100910.
2- Tabrizi AHH, Kalantari H, Foroohi F. Evaluation of the effectiveness of various drugs in the treatment of COVID-19, New Cell Mol Biotech. j.11/42 , 2021.

  • Council Of Scientific And Industrial Research , India
  • Title:Management and Detection of Toxigenic Fusarium Species and their Mycotoxins in Stored Grains
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Abstract:

Fusarium is one of the most agriculturally important genera of fungi and affects plants, humans, and animals’ health. The prevalence of mycotoxins producing species of Fusarium in the food and the environment is hazardous to the living being. Mycotoxins are secondary metabolites of fungi that contaminate a variety of agricultural products, and are a serious threat to food safety. Food and Agricultural Organization (FAO) reported that more than 25% of the world’s food crops were contaminated with a variety of mycotoxins. Fusarium produces chemically diverse toxins viz., fumonisins (FUM), zearalenone (ZEA), trichothecenes (TRI) in food and feed. The consumption of mycotoxins contaminated food displayed/ exhibited various types of toxicity in humans and animals viz., teratogenic, estrogenic, carcinogenic, immune- suppressive, and neurotoxic effects. The prevention of mycotoxin contamination in the food and feed chain is a challenging task for researchers. The use of physical and chemical methods forms toxic by-products that lead to secondary contamination; also deteriorate the quality of food. Lactic acid bacteria, yeast are more effective biological control of mycotoxins, easy to process, and eco-friendly. We have demonstrated the probiotic potential of novel Lactococcus lactis BIONCL17752on growth inhibition of Fusarium graminearum, Fusarium verticillioides, and their mycotoxins ZEA and FUM. Also, efficacy against bacterial, anti-biofilm formation abilities. We recommend L. lactis for a novel biocontrol agent, substitute Antibiotic growth promoters in poultry, and could be used as a food-grade preservative in food and feed industries.

Biography:

I am Vishwambar Navale working as a Ph.D. student at CSIR-National Chemical Laboratory, Pune India. Currently, I am working on toxigenic fungi and their mycotoxins detections and management in food and feed system. I have done my bachelor’s and master’s degree in Biotechnology from Dr. Babasaheb Ambedkar Marathwada University, Aurangabad.

Exam qualified: CSIR-NET (2017), ICAR NET (2016),

Awards and Fellowships: CSIR-NET JRF (2016), Eaklavya scholarship (2012-2014)

  • Texas Tech University, USA
  • Title:Microbial Biofilm May Contribute to Alzheimer's Disease
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Abstract:

The European Infectious Disease Society’s subcommittee on biofilm in 2014 concluded that microbes (bacterial and fungal) growing as biofilm cause chronic infections. Chronic infections are becoming an overwhelming drain on health care resources because chronic infections are increasing exponentially and our ability to adequately manage chronic infections is lacking. Acute infections are caused primarily by planktonic (single cell) microbes and respond to relatively low dose single agent antibiotic regimens. The microbes that form a biofilm community are polymicrobial, act cooperatively (synergy), develop colony defenses (self-secreted matrix, quorum sensing, anoxic core) by up regulating usually one third of its genome dedicated to biofilm structure and function. Biofilms are tolerant of host immunity and usual antimicrobial treatment regimens
. In the host, biofilms produce a parasitic infection associated with persistent inflammation. The persistent inflammation of biofilm infection is evidenced by excessive senescent neutrophils and macrophages along with excessive inflammatory cytokines (interleukin’s, interferons, TNF alpha) which are adequate to induce antimicrobial peptides. Amyloid beta, is one such antimicrobial peptide, which in elevated concentrations is well documented to seed and then developed fibrils which eventually leads to a steady state amyloid plaque. The amyloid cascade leading to amyloid plaques and neurofibrillary tangles may be the direct downstream effect of biofilm infection. Biofilm structures have been identified on heart valves and in atherosclerotic plaques demonstrating biofilm’s ability to infect intravascular structures. Deceased patients with Alzheimer’s disease have been shown to have increased amounts of bacterial DNA in their brain substance. Bacteria is present in the brains of patients with Alzheimer’s disease and that bacteria producing a biofilm infection offers a viable explanation for the pathogenesis of Alzheimer’s disease.

Biography:

Dr. Wolcott has been a wound care provider for over 25 years and is the Founder of the Southwest Regional Wound Care Center in Lubbock Texas. He has been the Principal Investigator on multiple studies and was part of an NIH grant with the Center for Biofilm Engineering at Montana State. Dr. Wolcott has numerous publications focusing on biofilm in wounds and other diseases such as atherosclerosis, cystic fibrosis, catheter related blood stream infections and amyloid disease such as Alzheimer’s disease.

  • University of Sao Paulo , Brazil
  • Title:Dipeptidyl Nitrile Derivatives Suppress the Trypanosoma cruzi in Vitro Infection
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Abstract:

Chagas disease is a health and sanitation endemic issue in the South America, promoted by the protozoa from Trypanosoma cruzi. However, such disease has spread around the world and affected numerous countries. One of the most relevant targets for the parasite and, consequently, for the disease development are the Cysteine proteases. These enzymes are essential for the parasite life cycle and replication, and protease inhibitors, such as dipeptidyl nitriles and their derivatives, might bring positive effects and emerge as drug candidates In this work, four dipeptidyl nitrile derivatives (Neq 0594, 0666, 0662 and 0663) were assayed against the three T. cruzi morphologies and two strains (Y and Tulahuen). All the inhibitors were able to inhibit the in vivo cysteine proteases activity in the amastigote form. Besides that, Neq0662 promoted significant proteolytic activity suppression for infective and replicative morphologies. In addition, it was equipotent to the reference drug (benznidazole) in the cytotoxic studies, besides being. selective for the parasite, with parasite invasion inhibition of the mammalian host cell in all conditions tested. The results indicate that these class of compounds are promising as drug candidates due to their relevant bioactive profile comparing to the reference drug.

Biography:

Dr. Pedro Henrique Jatai Batista is an analyst at Lasa-Dosage Laboratory Research in Campinas/SP, Brazil. Pedro was born in Fortaleza, Ceará-Brazil and completed his Ph. D in Biological Chemistry (2019) at the Chemistry Institute of São Carlos, University of São Paulo (USP), Brazil, which his thesis was based on the development and validation of methods for bioactivity compounds analysis, as well as their metabolites, by HPLC-DAD-MS. During his academic life, he got opportunities to work with different analytical tools, as chromatographic and spectrometric analysis for natural compounds, project developed during his Master degree in Organic Chemistry at Federal University of Ceará (UFC), Brazil. Besides acquiring expertise about analytical procedures, he was able to improve his knowledge on medicinal chemistry, focused on enzyme inhibition and cellular evaluation. Currently, Pedro he has taken a position at Lasa-Dosage Laboratory Research in Campinas, São Paulo, as an analyst on regulatory affairs.

  • Gothenburg University , Sweden
  • Title:Prevalence of Latent TB and Effectiveness of BCG Vaccination Against Latent Tuberculosis: An Observational Study
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Abstract:

Objectives: The aims of the present study were to determine the prevalence of LTBI in immigrant children and adolescents (0-17 years) living in or recently coming to Sweden and to estimate the effectiveness of BCG against latent TB (LTBI) in immigrant children coming to Sweden from high-incidence countries, most of them asylum seekers. LTBI was defined as positive Quantiferon or in small children from whom it was difficult to get 3 mL of blood as a tuberculin skin test (TST) of ≥ 10 mm.
Design: As a substitute for written documentation of BCG vaccination a typical BCG scar was used. The study comprised 1,404 immigrants aged 0-17 years. The arms and legs of all of them were inspected for a BCG scar and Quantiferon or TST was performed. The study was a retrospective, observational, comparative cohort study.
Results: Apart from the 1,532 patient records which were reviewed another 301 immigrants were offered a health examination during the same time period but they did not come to the out-patient clinic, despite a reminder, so 16 % of all immigrant children were never tested for LTBI. LTBI was found in 123 of 1011 (12%) children with a BCG scar and in 116 of 393 (29.5 %) without a BCG scar giving an estimated vaccine effectiveness of 59 %.
Conclusions: LTBI is common among immigrant children (17 %). LTBI can progress to active TB and will then spread in the immigrant population and to the general population if all arrivals are not tested and given prophylactic treatment if they have LTBI. The BCG vaccine has a significant effect on LTBI (59 %).

Biography:

BT graduated as an MD in 1974 at the University of Gothenburg, Sweden. During the first 10 years he worked as an infectious Disease specialist, participated in a diploma course in Tropical Medicine and Parasitology at the Brnhard-Nocht Institute, Hamburg Germany and worked for 2 years at the National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD, USA. After that he led a double-blind placebo-controlled tral of an acellular pertussis vaccine. Thereafter he educated himself to be a specialist in Pediatrics and worked through the rest of his professional life as a pediatrician at Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Gothenburg, Sweden (both with pediatrics ibfectious diseases and a general pediatrician): He has published > 200 scientific articles in peer-reviewed international journals, mainly about Haemophilus influenzae type b, invasive pneumococcal infetions, invasive infections in neonates, neuroborreliosis and tuberculosis. He has after his retirement continued to work half-time as a pediatrician.

  • Rene Rachou Institute , Brazil
  • Title:Design and Production of Dengue Virus Chimeric Proteins Sseful for Developing Tetravalent Vaccines
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Abstract:

Currently, there is no specific treatment or efficient vaccines against the Dengue virus (DENV). We designed and produced chimeric proteins composed by immunogenic epitopes from the four DENV serotypes to develop a tetravalent dengue vaccine. For this, South American DENV isolate amino acid sequences submitted to several in silico analysis and regions of the envelope and NS1 proteins that are highly homologous among the four DENV serotypes, non-conserved antigenic regions and the most antigenic epitopes found in the C, prM, E and NS1 DENV proteins were used to construct 11 chimeric peptides. Genes encoding the chimeric proteins were synthesized, and proteins were produced and further subjected to ELISA assays using sera from individuals infected with DENVs 1, 2, 3 or 4. One chimeric protein (EnvEpII) was selected to immunize BALB/c and C57BL/6 mice strains. The immunization with EnvEpII protein induced an increased number of T CD4+ and CD8+ cells, high production of IgG1 and IgG2 antibodies, and increased levels of IL-2 and IL-17 cytokines, in both mouse strains. Although further experiments are required, our results indicate that epitope selection by bioinformatic tools is efficient to create recombinant chimeric proteins that can be used as candidates for the development of vaccines against dengue.

Biography:

PhD in Biochemistry and Immunology from the Federal University of Minas Gerais. Works as a Public Health Technologist at the Rene Rachou Research Institute, an unit of the Oswaldo Cruz Research Foundation (Fiocruz Minas) and Leader of the Research Group on Cellular and Molecular Immunology at Fiocruz. Has experience in the areas of Biochemistry and Immunology, with an emphasis on molecular biology. Currently works on projects involving basic and molecular virology, alternative strategies for vaccine development and diagnosis for arboviruses, dengue immunopathogenesis and nanotechnology applied to cancer and viruses of interest.

  • Austral University of Chile, Chile
  • Title:Characterization and Expression Analysis of Inflammasome Genes (NLRC3 and NLRC5) Against an Infection with Piscirickettsia salmonis in Atlantic Salmon
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Abstract:

The nucleotide binding oligomerization domain like receptors, or NOD like receptors (NLRs 3 &5), are intracellular receptors responsible for recognizing pathogens in vertebrates. Several NLR mammalian models have been characterized and analyzed but few studies have been performed with teleost species. In this study, we analyzed the nucleotide sequence of six mRNA variants of NLRC3 and NLCRC5 in Atlantic salmon (SsNLRC3), and we deduced the amino acid sequence coding for two different isoforms with a total length of 1135 amino acids and 1093 amino acids. We analyzed the phylogeny of all variants, including a Piscirickettsia salmonis infection in Atlantic salmon. All variants and their expression pattern during infection were analyzed using real-time qPCR. One of the analyzed variants was over-expressed during the early stages of Piscirickettsia salmonis infection, and we were able to identify two different SsNLRC3 isoforms. Lastly, we observed that the pathogen recognition of Piscirickettsia salmonis intracellular infecction can directly modulate inflamasome.

Biography:

Dr. Yañez is a full professor at the Universidad Austral de Chile. Participate as researcher in FONDAP INCAR. He did his doctoral research at UMKC University, USA. He has published more than 100 research articles, book chapters.

  • Cleveland Clinic Foundation, United States
  • Title:Managing Cystic Fibrosis Related Diabetes via Telehealth During COVID-19 Pandemic
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Abstract:

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) was declared a pandemic on March 11, 2020. In efforts to reduce the risk of transmission, telehealth visits for routine care has significantly increased in the United States. Cystic fibrosis patients have been categorized as a highly vulnerable population to COVID-19 infection. Cystic Fibrosis centers are rapidly assessing and responding to the pandemic to ensure the safety of CF patients. At our Cleveland Clinic Cystic Fibrosis center, we transitioned outpatient clinics to a virtual care model in March 2020. The objectives of my presentation will include 1) the pathophysiology of COVID-19 in CF and 2) the strategies that were implemented at our Cleveland Clinic CF Center for outpatient management of CFRD through telehealth during the COVID-19 crisis

Biography:

Dr. Hasan received her medical degree from Ohio University Heritage College of Osteopathic Medicine in 2008. All throughout her four years of medical school, she was the recipient of Jerry A. Zinni scholarship. She continued her post graduate training at Summa, Akron City Hospital with a residency in Internal Medicine. Her interest in research and endocrinology enabled her to pursue a three-year research fellowship in Endocrinology and Metabolism at University of Nebraska Medical Center in Omaha, NE. Her research study on the effects of All-trans Retinoic acid in obesity related type 2 diabetes was well recognized, leading to early career travel awards at the 95th annual Endocrine Society meeting in 2013 as well as 74th American Diabetes Association meeting in 2014. Her academic achievements throughout her fellowship led to her appointment as a Clinical Instructor at University of Nebraska Medical Center in 2014. She was honored to present her work on All-trans Retinoic acid on weight, glucose homeostasis and white adipose tissue internationally, initially at 22nd European Congress on Obesity in Prague, Czech Republic in 2015, followed by the European Association for the Study of Diabetes 51st Annual meeting in Stockholm, Sweden, later that year. She served as co-investigator on a registry maintaining online database for complex causes of diabetes, its complications and their relationship to post transplant diabetes, hearing loss and pancreatic cancer. Dr. Hasan’s strong academic and research background led to her appointment as a Clinical Assistant Professor at Cleveland Clinic Lerner College of Medicine as well as an Associate Staff for the Endocrinology and Metabolism Institute in late, 2015. She remains an active faculty member with the Endocrinology fellowship program at Cleveland Clinic with multiple poster presentations at national society meetings. She assumed the role of the Director of the South Region with the Endocrinology and Metabolism Institute in 2019. She was subsequently awarded an EnVision grant for her role as a primary investigator in her study of optimizing glycemic control in Cystic fibrosis related diabetes.

  • GC Women University Sialkot, Pakistan
  • Title:Antibacterial Activity of Extract Formulations of Tachyspermum ammi, Amomum subulatum and Cinnamomum verum
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Abstract:

Emergence of antimicrobial resistance worldwide is responsible for alarming situation. There is an urgent need to discover more effective, safer and less toxic antibacterial agents. Medicinal plants are valuable alternative resources for developing novel drugs. In the present study hexane and acetone extracts of Tachyspermum ammi seeds, Amomum subulatum fruit and Cinnamomum verum bark, independently and in combinations were used to evaluate invitro antibacterial efficacies against four clinical bacterial strains such as E. coli, S. aureus, P. aeruginosa and S. epidermidis. Antibacterial activity of various combinations of these three plant extracts reported for the first time in order to determine synergistic potential and pharmacological interactions. Ciprofloxacin served as positive control antibiotic. Zone of inhibitions of plant extracts was compared with standard antibiotic ciprofloxacin. Our findings reported that clinical strains E. coli and S. aureus that were completely resistant to Ciprofloxacin showed tremendous susceptibility towards separate and combined plant extracts. Most susceptible strain towards plant extracts was S. aureus followed by E. coli, S. epidermidis and P. aeruginosa. Most resistant strain towards plant extracts was P. aeruginosa. It was noted that prominent synergism occurred in most of the combined plant extracts highlighting medical importance for combating infections caused by multidrug resistant bacteria. Current study clearly suggests that various combinations of these three plant extracts could be used as potential natural resources in order to develop promising antibiotic for treating various infections.

Biography:

Dr. Asma Waheed Qureshi has completed her PhD from University of The Punjab, Pakistan in Zoology. Currently she is working as Associate Professor and Head of The Department of Zoology, GC Women University Sialkot, Pakistan. She is also supervising PhD and MS research Scholars and more than 15 MS scholars has completed their degree under her supervision. She has also published more than 25 research articles in reputed journals and presented papers in national and international conferences. Her research focus are parasites and bacterial pathogens of animals and humans.

  • Mayaguez Medical Center, USA
  • Title:Epidemiological Characteristics of Patients Diagnosed with COVID-19 by PCR at Mayaguez Medical Center
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Abstract:

The first cases of SARS-CoV- 19 in Puerto Rico were confirmed by March 13, 2020. One of these cases was admitted to Mayaguez Medical Center (MMC). From March 9 to May 31, 2020 a total of 1085 Covid-19 PCR tests were performed in this Institution. From the total of tests performed, 25 patients were diagnosed with COVID-19 infection by the PCR test. This study has helped us to identify the peak of infection at Mayaguez Medical Center as well as epidemiological and clinical characteristics of the positive cases. Retrospective transversal study at Mayaguez Medical Center (MMC) from March to May 2020. Data was collected from the electronic health record. The inclusion criteria are COVID-19 PCR test from March 9, 2020 to May 31, 2020 ordered at MMC. The sample size was 1085 PCR test. Variables included municipally, chief complaint, associated symptoms, travel history, close contact exposure, comorbidities, smoking history, admission, and outcome. COVID-19 PCR positive test results were quantified and plotted in graphs. Patients were categorized by gender and age also divided between admission and discharge. Mayaguez Medical Center had two peaks of infection on March 21, 2020 and March 27, 2020. The infection peak in Puerto Rico was on March 30 to April 1, 2020. The majority of the patients presented with mild symptoms and were discharged with instructions to continue with social isolation and preventive measures. The positive rate of COVID-19 infection in our population was 2.3%. This number represents the extensive testing performed at Mayaguez Medical Center. The epidemiological characteristic of COVID-19 positive patients at Mayaguez Medical Center are citizens from Mayaguez, males younger than 65 y/o, who did not travel (or without history of traveling) but were exposed by a positive close contact and were discharged home from the emergency department. The clinical characteristics of these patients are a past medical history of hypertension, no smoking history, with chief complaints of cough and fever, associated with headache, weakness, and malaise.

Biography

Dr. Elizabeth Pabon-Vazquez is a second-year internal medicine resident at Mayaguez Medical Center, Puerto Rico. Her medicine degree was obtained in 2017 at University of Medicine and Health Sciences-St. Kitts. She completed her internship at Hospital Buen Samaritano at Aguadilla in 2019 and graduated from Southern New Hampshire University with a master’s in sciences in Healthcare Administration in 2020. The pandemic emergency of COVID-19 brough an opportunity to document, and research about the impact of COVID-19 virus in her community.

  • Royal Perth Hospital, Australia
  • Title:Antibiotic Prophylaxis in Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery: A Systematic Review
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Abstract:

Background: Surgical site infections are a complication of oral and maxillofacial procedures, with the potential for significant morbidity and mortality. Use of pre-, peri- and post-operative antibiotic prophylaxis to reduce the incidence of surgical site infections must be balanced with considerations of a patients’ risk of antibiotic-related adverse events. This review aims to provide evidence-based recommendations for antibiotic prophylaxis.
Methods: Searches were conducted using MEDLINE, the Cochrane Library, EMBASE and PUBMED for maxillofacial procedures including: treatment of dental abscesses, extractions, implants, trauma, temporomandibular joints, orthognathics, malignant and benign tumour removal, and bone grafting, limited to articles published since 2000.
Results: 98 out of 280 retrieved papers were included in the final analysis. Systematic reviews were assessed using AMSTAR criteria. Randomised controlled trials were assessed for bias using Cochrane Collaborative tools. The overall quality of evidence was assessed using GRADE.
Conclusions: Prophylactic antibiotic use is recommended in surgical extractions of third molars, comminuted mandibular fractures, temporomandibular joint replacements, clean-contaminated tumour removal, and complex implants. Prophylactic antibiotic use is not routinely recommended in upper or midface fracture facial thirds. Further research is required to provide recommendations in orthognathic, cleft lip, palate, temporomandibular joint surgery, and maxillofacial surgical procedures in medically compromised patients.

Biography

Dr Priyanka Raidoo graduated with a Bachelor of Medicine Bachelor of Surgery from James Cook University in 2015. She is currently undertaking a Masters of Tropical Medicine and Public Health at James Cook University. Priyanka is also completing her Doctor of Dental Medicine at the University of Western Australia and is a maxillofacial service registrar in Perth, Australia.

  • University of veterinary and animal sciences ,Pakistan
  • Title:Effects of Different Mating Strategies and Housing Systems in Broiler Breeder During Peak and Post Peak Phase on Subsequent Broiler Performance
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Abstract:

Two experimental trials on commercial broiler (Ross-308) were conducted to evaluate the
carryover effects of artificial insemination (AI) in parent flock (PF) kept in cages (C), and on floor (F) in comparison to natural mating (NM) in floored PF. A total of 900 broiler chicks were obtained from 38-week-old PF (peak production), representing C, F, and NM evenly during first trial, whereas in second trial, similar number of broiler chicks were obtained from same PF during post peak phase (55 week of age). Subsequent effects of AI and NM in PF were evaluated by bacteriology, post hatch mortality, growth performance, immune response, and carcass traits on experimental birds. Chicks being produced through NM exhibited significantly (P ≤ 0.05) improved growth performance i.e., feed conversion ratio, weight gain, European efficiency factor along with the least (P ≤ 0.05) post hatch mortality and prevalence of Escherichia coli (E.coli), Salmonella Pullorum (SP), and Mycoplasma gallisepticum (MG) tested on 0,15 and 30th days of age . Moreover, the experimental chicks obtained from floored PF subjected to AI particularly during post peak phase expressed the highest (P ≤ 0.05) contamination of the said pathogens along with post hatch mortality. Perhaps, immune response against New Castle disease and infectious bronchitis vaccines and slaughtering parameters remained nonsignificant (P > 0.05) among the 3 treatments under both trials. Thus, it is concluded that the best growth performance along with the least depletion and microbial load of concerned pathogens were being pertained by the experimental broiler birds representing NM.

  • Indiana University School of Medicine ,USA
  • Title:Droplet and Aerosol Generation from Otolaryngologic Procedures: Surgical Risk in the Pandemic Era
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Abstract:

Purpose: The COVID-19 pandemic has led to concerns over transmission risk from healthcare procedures, especially in head and neck procedures including endonasal, otologic, and facial surgery as well as in-office flexible laryngoscopy. It has also uncovered a critical lack of knowledge in the potential for droplet and aerosol generation due to these procedures. In order to help close this, a series of studies was performed in cadavers and live patients in order to quantify droplet and aerosol generation.
Materials and Methods: Cadaveric surgical sites were impregnated with a 0.1% fluorescein solution. Procedures performed include endoscopic sinus surgery, mastoidectomy, facial fracture repair, and rhinoplasty. Droplets were recorded against an impermeable blue background under ultraviolet-A (UV-A) light. Aerosol generation was measured using an optical particle sizer and a variety of suction devices were trialed for aerosol mitigation. Aerosol generation was measured alone in live patients during tympanostomy and myringotomy tube insertion and flexible laryngoscopy.
Results: Visible droplet contamination was observed following mastoid, endonasal, and orbital drilling but not after mandible fixation and rhinoplasty. Aerosol generation was associated with electrocautery use and drilling with powered burrs (p<0.05). This was successfully mitigated using suction devices including smoke-evacuating electrocautery handpieces and attachable systems (p<0.05). In live patients, tympanostomy and myringotomy tube insertion and flexible laryngoscopy did not elevate aerosol counts to above the threshold of detection (p>0.10) compared to the positive controls (p<0.05). Conclusions: Nosocomial viral spread from droplet and aerosol generation is a risk of several head and neck procedures including endonasal, otologic, and facial surgery. Aerosol generation was highest during electrocautery use and drilling with powered burrs. Suction devices were effective in mitigating the increase in airborne particles where tested. Key procedures including tympanostomy and myringotomy tube insertion and flexible laryngoscopy in live patients did not result in aerosol generation above the level of detection, suggesting that there may be a role for diversion of viral mitigation resources toward areas of higher risk. Biography:

Michael Ye, MD is a fourth-year resident with the Indiana University School of Medicine Department of Otolaryngology—Head and Neck Surgery. He received his undergraduate education at Northwestern University in Evanston, Illinois and his medical degree at the Indiana University School of Medicine in Indianapolis, Indiana. As a provider, he is passionate about serving the community he grew up in by treating the whole scope of head and neck pathologies. His broad research pursuits include advancing surgical safety, patient outcomes, patient education, and basic science in the field of otolaryngology. In his free time, he enjoys playing music, dance, cooking, and fitness.

  • Hopkirk Research Institute, New Zealand
  • Title:Antimicrobial Production by Clostridium Species
  • Time :

Abstract:

Indiscriminate use of antimicrobials has resulted in the emergence of antimicrobial resistance that continues to rise on a global scale. This not only affects the environment, humans, or animals but also food systems. Hence, for food preservation, the use of natural antimicrobials has been favoured over synthetic ones due to concerns over ill effects of these chemicals and customer acceptance. As a consequence, researchers have explored numerous different natural resources to search for antimicrobial agents, including bacteria. Many studies have investigated the potential of various bacteria to produce antimicrobials, however, most of these studies have been focussed on aerobes and facultative anaerobes. The use of strict anaerobes such as Clostridium spp. as a potential antimicrobial compound producer has been largely neglected, in part because pathogenic Clostridium species have received the most attention owing to their detrimental effects on humans, animals, and food systems. Most of the Clostridium spp. are in fact saprophytes and not involved in a disease process. As Clostridium spp. can thrive in extreme environments with their adaptive metabolic mechanisms to the harsh conditions, synthesis of bioactive molecules may play an important role in their survival. Their potential to synthesize small bioactive molecules should therefore be of great interest to look for novel antimicrobial compounds. In recent years, genomic studies have indicated the potential of strict anaerobes to be antimicrobial producers. Genome mining studies showed the presence of biosynthetic gene clusters in anaerobic bacteria responsible for the production of putative bioactive molecules. This further stimulated the investigation of Clostridium spp. for their antimicrobial production. A limited number of antimicrobials have been identified and characterised so far, from the genus Clostridium, indicating the importance of more research in identifying and characterising novel antimicrobial compounds from Clostridium species. In this talk, we will discuss the current knowledge of Clostridial antimicrobial compounds as well as opportunities and challenges in the production and identification of antimicrobials from Clostridium spp. using culture and non-culture-based approaches.

Biography:

Dr. Tanushree Gupta is a Research Scientist in AgResearch Ltd, New Zealand. She has an extensive experience in dairy, meat microbiology, bacterial genetics as well as exploring natural resources for novel antimicrobial compounds. Her area of expertise is not only limited to these but also include biofilm studies, quorum sensing as well as novel processing technologies for product development. She leads a team of PhD students who work on sheep dairy, novel antimicrobial compounds as well as to decontaminate food matrices using hurdle technologies.

  • Myongji Hospital, Republic of Korea
  • Title:Providing Essential Clinical Care for Non-COVID-19 Patients in a Seoul Metropolitan Acute Care Hospital Amidst Ongoing Treatment of COVID-19 Patients
  • Time :

Abstract:

In the advent of the COVID-19 outbreak in Korea, Myongji Hospital adopted a dual-track healthcare system to provide continuity of care for its patients while managing referred COVID-19 patients simultaneously. We assessed infection control efforts by comparing data collected over 20 weeks during a pandemic under a dual-track healthcare system. A decline in non-COVID-19 patients visiting the emergency department by 37.6% (P<0.01) was observed since admitting COVID-19 cases. However, patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI), stroke, severe trauma and acute appendicitis presenting for emergency care did not decrease. Door-to-balloon time for AMI improved significantly while door-to-needle time in stroke management remained steady. Simultaneously, time-sensitive care involving other clinical services, including patients requiring chemotherapy, radiation therapy and haemodialysis did not change. During this presentation, Dr. Lee will discuss the keys to successfully operating a dual-track healthcare system amidst ongoing COVID-19 pandemic.                                                                                                                                                                                                             Biography:

Dr. Wangjun Lee is one of the most influential person in the Korean healthcare sector. He is chairman and CEO of Myongji Medical Foundation, and running two more acute care hospitals and 3 long-term care(LTC) facilities. Also, he is CEO of Korea’s most influential healthcare news & publishing company, ‘The Korean Doctors’ Weekly’, founded in 1992. He is one of the leading NGO activists in the medical aid area for migrant workers in Korea, and now serves as vice chairman of the Migrant Health Association in Korea. As an Executive Chairman of international affairs of the Korean Hospital Association, he is in charge of general secretary of the Korea Healthcare Congress, which is the top healthcare related annual congress in Asia. He is also a CEO and Chairman of very venturous biotech company ‘CancerROP’ that is listed in KOSDAQ market, along with a cell therapy company ‘MJ CellBio’. Dr. Lee graduated from Seoul National University, College of Medicine. He achieved board of surgery in Seoul National University Hospital. He was awarded a Ph.D. degree from the same University.

  • Bacteriology Section of the Evandro Chagas Institute, Brazil
  • Title:Study of TNF-α, IFN-γ, TGF-β, IL-6, and IL-10 Gene Polymorphism in Individuals from the leprosy Endemic Area in the Brazilian Amazon
  • Time :

Abstract:

This study aimed to verify the relationship between the polymorphisms of the cytokines TNF-α rs1800629; IFN-γ rs2430561; TGF-β rs1982073 e rs1800471; IL-6 rs180079 e IL-10 rs1800896, rs1800871 and rs1800872 and leprosy. Blood samples were analyzed from 106 individuals, of whom 24 were paucibacillary (PB), 28 were multibacillary (MB), 32 intradomiciliary consanguineal contacts of patients (CCOSI) and 22 intradomiciliary non-consanguineal contacts of patients (CNCOSI). Analysis of cytokine polymorphisms typified by the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) technique. For TGFβ, a tendency to associate the presence of the C allele at rs1982073 with leprosy was demonstrated, with the T allele being most frequently found in the CCOSI (p = .056). For the polymorphisms IL-10 we found an association of the GCC/GCC genotype with the susceptibility to the disease and the A-allele rs1800896 with the leprosy protection. Greater predominance was found of ACC / ATA (31.3%) and GCC / ATA (37.5%) (p =.03) and the A-allele rs1800896 (76.85%) (p =.043) in the CCOSI groups, while the GCC/GCC was found in the MB group (22.2%) (p=.05). For the other cytokines’s SNPs there were no associations with susceptibility to leprosy. These results are limited by sample size, may not be conclusive and will need further confirmation in a larger cohort.

Biography:

Everaldina Cordeiro dos Santos, Brasileira, natural de Belém-PA. Biomedical, graduated from the Federal University of Pará in 1997, a federal public servant of the Ministry of Health, Institute Evandro Chagas, working in the bacteriology section of the molecular biology laboratory with an emphasis on leprosy. Specialist in Aesthetic Biomedicine, Master in Health Surveillance and Epidemiology by the PPGVS program of the Evandro Chagas Institute and entering the doctorate at the State University of Pará.

  • Universiti Sains Malaysia, Malaysia
  • Title:Improvements in Strongyloides stercoralis Serodiagnosis Using New Antibody and Antigen Detection Assays
  • Time :

Abstract:

Strongyloides stercoralis is a parasitic helminth prevalent in tropical and subtropical areas globally, infecting 100 to 370 million people. This parasite can cause lifelong infection in immunocompetent individuals, and potentially death in immunocompromised patients. There is an increasing number of immunosuppressed people worldwide due to more cancers, chronic illnesses, and transplantations. The low sensitivity of stool microscopic examination hinders the diagnosis of strongyloidiasis; thus, serology plays an important complementary role to improve the detection rate. However, some individuals with confirmed infections were reported to be negative for Strongyloides-specific IgG, signaling the need to develop better serodiagnostic methods. To address this challenge, we have developed three new assays. The first is a lateral flow dipstick test (SsRapid™), which used two recombinant proteins as the test line and detected specific IgG4 antibodies. The diagnostic sensitivity and specificity were found to be 91.3% (n=23) and 100% (n=82), respectively. Its high diagnostic performance and rapid format are attractive for low resource settings. The second assay is an IgE-ELISA using a novel recombinant protein (rA133), and it showed diagnostic sensitivity and specificity of 100% (n=43) and 99% (n=94), respectively. This assay may potentially replace the current IgG-ELISA due to its excellent diagnostic performance. The third assay is an antigen detection ELISA (Ag-ELISA) using a recombinant monoclonal scFv antibody against rNIE antigen, which captures circulating immune complexes in infected individuals. The Ag-ELISA showed 100% diagnostic sensitivity (n=37) and specificity (n=101). Notably, comparison of optical density (OD) values of two groups of positive individuals, i.e., those who were ‘parasitology/stool-PCR positive and serology positive’ and those ‘stool-PCR positive but IgG negative,’ showed the latter had significantly higher OD values (p<0.05). A higher level of circulating antigen, positive stool-PCR, but negative specific IgG indicated that the latter group probably had early Strongyloides infection. In conclusion, the three new assays developed are useful additions to the available methods to improve the laboratory diagnosis of strongyloidiasis markedly.

  • Federal University of Bahia, Brazil
  • Title:Immunogenicity and Protection for Mice and Canines Induced by Recombinant Toxocara canis Proteins
  • Time :

Abstract:

Toxocara canis is the helminth agent of toxocariasis, whose definitive hosts are canines, but it affects humans and other mammals as paratenic hosts, causing multiple clinical pictures, and occurs worldwide, predominating in tropical and developing countries. There is a need for the development of vaccines to prevent this infection. Thus, in this study it was possible to identify by in silico analyses, several potential T. canis proteins for the development of a canine vaccine. After expression in procaryote systems of three molecules (rTcCad, rTcVcan, rTcCyst), they were purified and tested in a murine model of toxocariasis using C57BL/6 female mice; the mice were immunized with each or with combinations of the recombinant antigens, prior to challenge with 500 T. canis embryonated eggs. It was evaluated the production of anti-T. canis IgA, IgE, IgG (IgG1-IgG2a), as well as the in-vitro production of cytokines such as IL-5, INF-g and IL-10 by spleen cells. The groups vaccinated with the rTcCad and rTcVcan molecules generated a mixed Th1/Th2 immune response. In relation to the migration of larvae in different tissues, vaccination with rTcCad and rTcVcan with CFA reduced larval loads in mice exposed to T. canis by 54.3% and 53.9% (p <0.0001), respectively, compared to non-immunized controls. The best proteins were then evaluated using different adjuvants. When QuilA® was added as adjuvant to rTVcan, protection against larval migration increased markedly to 73.2% (p<0.0001). In canines, this vaccine formulation (rTcVcan+QuilA®) generated a significant reduction (70-90%) in the parasite load according to the egg counting in feces (p<0.0001), a significant reduction (50-60%) in eggs extracted from the uterus of pharmacologically expelled T. canis females (p<0.001) and a mixed Th1/Th2 response of cytokines produced by PBMC. Concluding, the mixed Th1/Th2 response of cytokines with an adequate level of antibodies (IgG) promoted significant protection of canines against toxocariasis under controlled laboratory conditions. From our knowledge, this is the first clinical trial in the World of a vaccine using T. canis recombinant proteins. It has shown promising results in the control of canine toxocariasis, which may impact animal health and the public health by controlling canine infection and indirectly of human toxocariasis. Biography:

NMAN – Graduated at Medicine from Universidade Federal da Bahia (UFBA) Medical School (1977), master’s at Medical Parasitology from University of London (1981) and PhD. In Molecular and Celular Biology (Fundação Oswaldo Cruz, Brazil, 1998). Works as Associate Professor of UFBA/Brazil. Has experience in immunoparasitology, acting on the following subjects: Association of helminth with asthma and allergy; development of allergens and helminths molecules for immunodiagnosis, immunotherapy and immunoprophilaxis purposes.

  • King Saud bin Abdulaziz University for Health Sciences, Saudi Arabia
  • Title:The Incidence of Ventilator-Associated Pneumonia (VAP) in a Tertiary-Care Center: Comparison between Pre- and Post-VAP Prevention Bundle
  • Time :

Abstract:

Introduction: Ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) is a nosocomial infection that develops 48h after the initiation of mechanical ventilatory support. Current evidence-based guidelines demonstrate that VAP prevention is feasible through the implementation of certain VAP prevention bundle of interventions simultaneously. We aimed in this study to investigate the effect of VAP prevention pre- and post-implementation.
Methods: This is a single-center, cohort study that took place at the Pediatric Intensive Care Unit (PICU) of King Abdulaziz Medical City (KAMC), Jeddah, Saudi Arabia from January 2015 to March 2018 and assessed the rate of VAP before and after implementation of the bundle.
Results: The study included 141 children, 95 were included from the pre-bundle group and 36 from the bundle group. VAP developed in 35% of the pre-bundle group compared to 31% of the bundle group (p = 0.651) with incidence rates equaled to 18 and 12 per 1000 ventilator days, respectively.
Conclusion: This study found that VAP bundle did not significantly reduce VAP rate in the PICU. Further large prospective multi-center studies with longer intervention duration are indicated to investigate the benefits of using VAP prevention bundle

Biography:

Yousef M. Al Talhi is a medical alumnus of King Saud bin Abdulaziz University for Health Sciences and is affiliated to King Abdullah International Medical Research Center, Saudi Arabia. His biostatistical and research skills are acknowledged by many research experts in both institutions. He participated in multiple research courses under the umbrella of British Medical Journal and Stanford University. He presented and published original articles on international level. Yousef is always eager to learn more about medical research and make exemplary changes in medical practice.

  • Kyoto University, Japan
  • Title:Schwann Cell-Derived CXCL1 Contributes to Human Immunodeficiency Virus type 1 gp120-induced Neuropathic Pain by Modulating Macrophage Infiltration in Mice
  • Time :

Abstract:

The neuroinflammatory responses to human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) coat proteins such as glycoprotein 120 (gp120) are considered to be responsible for HIV-associated distal sensory neuropathy. Accumulating evidence suggests that T-cell line tropic X4 gp120 increases macrophage infiltration into the peripheral nerves, and thereby induces neuroinflammation leading to pain. However, the mechanisms underlying X4 gp120-induced macrophage recruitment to the peripheral nervous systems remain unclear. We demonstrated that perineural application of X4 gp120 from HIV-120 strains IIIB and MN elicited mechanical hypersensitivity and spontaneous pain-like behaviors in mice. Furthermore, flow cytometry and immunohistochemical studies revealed increased infiltration of bone marrow-derived macrophages into the parenchyma of sciatic nerves and dorsal root ganglia (DRG) 7 days after gp120 IIIB or MN application. Chemical deletion of circulating macrophages using clodronate liposomes markedly suppressed gp120 IIIB-induced pain-like behaviors. In in vitro cell infiltration analysis, RAW 264.7 cell (a murine macrophage cell line) was chemoattracted to conditioned medium from gp120 IIIB-or MN treated cultured Schwann cells, but not to conditioned medium from these gp120-treated DRG neurons, suggesting the possible involvement of Schwann cell-derived soluble factors in macrophage infiltration. We identified using a gene expression array that CXCL1, a chemoattractant of macrophages and neutrophils, was increased in gp120 IIIB treated Schwann cells. Similar to gp120 IIIB or MN, peripheral neural application of recombinant CXCL1 elicited pain-like behaviors accompanied by macrophage infiltration to the peripheral nerves. Furthermore ,the repeated injection of CXCR2 (receptor for CXCL1) antagonist or CXCL1 neutralizing antibody prevented both pain-like behaviors and macrophage infiltration in gp120 IIIB treated mice. Thus, our findings newly define that Schwann cell-derived CXCL1, secreted in response to X4 gp120 IIIB exposure ,is responsible for macrophage infiltration into peripheral nerves ,and is thereby associated with pain-like behaviors in mice. We propose that communication between Schwann cells and macrophages may play a prominent role in the induction of X4 HIV-1-associated pain.

Biography:

Mpumelelo Ntogwa, PhD in Clinical pharmacology and therapeutics, Kyoto University Japan. Master of Science (Msc) in Clinical pharmacology and therapeutics, Kyoto University Japan (2018). Graduated with a Bachelor of Pharmacy from University of Havana, Cuba (2008). Has 6 years working experience as a hospital pharmacist at Mahalapye District Hospital, Botswana (2009-2015). His interests in HIV-associated pain was triggered by previous experiences working with HIV patients who regularly experienced a debilitating type of pain in their hands and feet which turned out to be HIV-induced Distal Sensory Neuropathy (HIV DSN). He has spent the past 6 years trying to uncover the mechanisms underlying this condition.

  • University of Calgary, Canada
  • Title:What Does an Infectious Diseases Doctor Need to Know About Castleman Disease? A Case Report and Update and New Treatment Approaches for Multicentric Castleman Disease
  • Time :

Abstract:

Background: Castleman disease comprises a rare and heterogeneous cluster of disorders, characterized by lymphadenopathy with unique histological features and associated with cytokine-driven constitutional symptoms and biochemical disturbances. Unicentric CD (UCD) is curable with complete surgical excision, but its multicentric counterpart (MCD) is a diagnostic and therapeutic challenge. Monoclonal antibodies to interleukin-6 and its receptor allow more targeted disease-specific intervention. The incidence of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) HHV-8 associated MCD is increasing. Because MCD presents often as a diagnostic dilemma in a systemically unwell individual, familiarity with MCD and its treatment are of benefit to infectious diseases subspecialists.

Objectives: We will review a challenging pediatric MCD case, present diagnostic workup and discuss current treatment approaches.
Case: A 14-year old boy developed chest pain, abdominal pain, shortness of breath and nausea. He was thought to have viral pericarditis and received colchicine with no benefit. He subsequently developed intermittent fevers, night sweats and increase in abdominal girth. Physical examination revealed moderate ascites, peripheral edema, lymphadenopathy and hepatosplenomegaly. His blood work showed elevation in inflammatory markers (CRP 258 mg/L, ESR 48 mm/hr), D-Dimer (> 10mg/L FEU), liver enzymes and creatinine. His hemoglobin was 80, platelets normal throughout, and his WBC fluxuated. His infectious workup was negative (EBV, CMV, Hepatitis, HIV, HTLV, Brucella, coxiella, parvovirus, mycoplasma, stronglyloides, schistosomaiasis, HHV8, TB). He developed features consistent with macrophage activation syndrome (MAS), and was initially treated with IVIG and IV methylprednisolone. He underwent lymphnode biopsy which was consistent with MCD. His chest and abdominal CT was negative for a malignancy.

Results: Once MCD was confirmed, he received Tocilizumab (IL -6 blocker). He had no response and Anakinra, an IL-1 blocker, was added with some improvement. Eventually, IL-6 receptor antagonist, Siltuximab was added, and other biologics were discontinued. After siltuximab, his, inflammatory markers and renal failure improved but his ascites persisted and he was eventually diagnosed with MCD related portal hypertension.

Conclusion: MCD is a serious condition, and should be considered in patients who present with multisystem disease with fever of unknown origin. In the presence of lymphadenopathy, a biopsy should be considered. Treatment can be challenging, and current guidelines suggest IL-6-blockade as the first line approach. However, patients may have various response rates to individual anti-IL-6 therapy and may require additional immunosuppressive therapy. It is important to investigate for infectious, malignant and autoimmune conditions, as MCD can be associated with each of these disease processes.

Biography:

Dr. Paivi Miettunen is a paediatric rheumatologist at Alberta Children’s Hospital, and an associate professor at the Cumming’s School of Medicine, University of Calgary, Calgary, AB, Canada. She has been involved in local, national and international research focused on bone health in pediatric leukemia (osteonecrosis), treatment and imaging of chronic recurrent multifocal osteomyelitis (CRMO), and treatment of macrophage activation syndrome (MAS).
She is a part of EURO-FEVER, an international research network for rare autoinflammatory diseases. She has published widely on autoinflammatory conditions (MAS, CRMO, periodic fevers) and has lectured internationally on these diseases.

  • University of Grenoble Alpes, France
  • Title:Variable Natural Cycles of Francisella tularensis Account for the Polymorphic Clinical and Epidemiological Aspects of Tularemia in Europe
  • Time :

Abstract:

Francisella tularensis is a Gram-negative bacterium causing the zoonosis tularemia. This highly virulent pathogen belongs to the class A biological threat agents of the CDC (USA). Tularemia may manifest by chronic regional lymphadenopathy usually associated with specific lesions at the bacterial inoculation site (e.g., skin ulcer, conjunctivitis, pharyngitis). Pneumonia (acute or tuberculosis-like chronic infections) and a pseudo-typhoid infection are two systemic, often life-threatening diseases. Classically, F. tularensis can infect a large number of animal species, although lagomorphs and small rodents are the primary sources of human infections. Tularemia is also a tick-borne disease, since many Ixodidae species can transmit the bacterium to humans and animals. Amazingly, this disease is primarily transmitted through mosquito bites in some Scandinavian areas. Finally, F. tularensis can survive for prolonged periods in the hydrotelluric environment. In some countries, tularemia is mainly a water-borne disease. The natural cycle of F. tularensis greatly vary between geographic areas, accounting for remarkable variations in the clinical and epidemiological aspects of tularemia in different countries.

Biography:

Max Maurin, 58 years old, is Professor of Bacteriology at Grenoble Alps University hopital since 2002. He has been trained (MD, PhD) in Prof. Didier Raoult clinical microbiology department (URMITE, Marseille, France). His main research topic deals with diagnosis and treatment of zoonotic diseases. Since 2006, he has been specifically involved in the field of tularemia and other Francisella-related diseases, as the Scientific director of the French National Reference Center for tularemia. His fields of expertise include: bacteriology, cell biology, molecular biology, antibiotic susceptibility testing, bacterial resistance to antibiotics, and drug development. He has published more than 150 articles in peer-reviewed journals, more than 50 book chapters, and is a co-inventor of 6 patents. He is currently a co-chief editor of the Clinical Microbiology section of Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology.

  • University of Pernambuco, Brazil
  • Title:Metronidazole and Amoxicillin Association in Aggressive Periodontitis: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis
  • Time :

Abstract:

The aim of this systematic review and meta-analysis was to evaluate the effects of metronidazole and amoxicillin in combination with mechanical therapy for the treatment of aggressive periodontitis. This study was conducted according to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses guidelines and was registered in the International Prospective Record of Systematic Reviews (CRD42018111595). The research was performed using PubMed/MEDLINE, Web of Science, Scopus, and Cochrane Library databases till December 2019 and included randomized clinical trials that analyzed whether the use of systemic metronidazole and amoxicillin improved the treatment response in patients with aggressive periodontitis. Altogether, 137 articles were identified and 4 studies were selected after applying the inclusion and the exclusion criteria. No statistically significant difference was observed in the clinical attachment level between the use of systemic antibiotics combined with scaling and root planning (SRP) and SRP without antibiotics (p = 0.52, mean deviation [MD]: 0.21, 95% confidence interval [CI]: -0.04–0.46). There was a statistically significant difference in the probing depth between the use of systemic antibiotics with SRP and the use of SRP alone (p = 0.02, MD: 0.40, 95% CI: 0.02–0.78). Gain in the clinical attachment level was not significantly higher when systemic antibiotics were used with SRP compared to SRP without antibiotics in the treatment of aggressive periodontitis. However, a statistically significant difference was observed in reduction in the probing depth.

Biography:

Cacio Lopes Mendes ,PhD student in Dentistry/Endodontics, University of Pernambuco FOP/UPE. Master in Dental Radiology and Imaging from the Faculty of Dentistry São Leopoldo Mandic (2016). Graduated in Dentistry from Universidade Salgado de Oliveira (2002) and specialized in Periodontics from SCDP/ABO-PE (2006) and in Dental Radiology and Imaging from Faculdade de Odontologia São Leopoldo Mandic. Academic Coordinator of the Dentistry Course at UNIFAVIP-Caruaru. Professor of the disciplines of Periodontics and Supervised Internship in Periodontics at the University Center of Faculdade Escritor Osman Lins (UniFACOL). Professor of Imaging, Pre-clinical Periodontics and Clinical Periodontics at Centro Universitário UniFBV – Recife.

  • Institute of Space and Astronautical Science, Japan
  • Title:Potential Microbial Transfer from Mars to Its Moons and Earth
  • Time :

Abstract:

Potential microbial transfer from Mars to its moons and even to Earth could be brought about by transportation of Mars ejecta produced by past gigantic meteoroid impacts on Mars. To answer this question, potential microbial transfer processes have been assessed, based on the most probable history of the recent major gigantic meteoroid impacts on Mars. Potential microbial density on Mars was estimated by analogy from the terrestrial areas having the similar arid and cold environments. Mars ejecta transportation from Mars and impact onto the Martian moons are numerically simulated by the Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics (SPH) method and associated trajectory analysis in a Monte Carlo manner, taking sterilization by hypervelocity impacts and cosmic radiation into consideration, to obtain a statistical estimate of the microbial density survived on the current surface of the Martian moons. The potential number of microorganisms transferred to Earth through the same processes was estimated as well.

Biography:

Prof. Fujita got a Ph.D. at Graduate School of the University of Tokyo in 1995. Then he became a research associate at the Institute of Space and Astronautical Science, and was engaged upon fundamental researches on nonequilibrium aerothermodynamics, radiation, rarefied gasdynamics, and plasma dynamics associated with planetary entry vehicles. He moved to Research & Development Directorate, the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA) in 2003. He has been a visiting professor at Graduated School of University of Tokyo since 2013, and a professor at the Institute of Space and Astronautical Science, JAXA since 2018. His group is engaged in technology development for planetary exploration, such as atmospheric entry system, aeroassist guidance, and planetary landing. In this context, his group has been actively conducting planetary protection and astrobiology researches for Mars exploration in recent years.

  • Sikkim Manipal University, India
  • Title:Antibiotic-Resistant Acinetobacter baumannii in a Tertiary Care Hospital Setting in Sikkim, India: Problems and Alternative Approach with Special Focus on Natural Products.
  • Time :

Abstract:

Acinetobacter baumannii is an inescapable pathogen capable of causing both community and health care–associated infections (HAIs). It has recently emerged as a major cause of HAI, because of its tendency of antimicrobial resistance mechanisms that has the proclivity for pan-drug resistance and cause large outbreaks in many institutes. Aims and Objective: The study aimed to investigate the antimicrobial susceptibility test and the biofilm production of the A. baumannii isolates. The study further aims to perform the real time PCR test for confirmatory identification and detection of drug resistance genes of A. baumannii. We also aimed to evaluate the selected natural products against antimicrobial resistance A. baumannii toward novel therapeutic agent. Methods: Around 100 positive of A. baumannii were taken from various clinical samples. Acinetobacter baumannii showed least sensitivity (14%-92%) to almost all the drugs and was 100% sensitive only to colistin and tigecycline. Various drug resistant genes like blaOXA 23, blaOXA 24, ,bla VIM-1 and blaSIM-1 genes were detected using real time PCR. The antimicrobial activity of Cleistanthus bracteosus Jabl on the A. baumannii isolates was found to be sensitive when compared to carbapenem drugs. Conclusion: The results suggest that other therapeutics options are needed apart from the antimicrobial agents. The study will further provide an important aid for discovering new antibiotics and determining efficient combination therapy, which are essential strategies for combating multidrug-resistant A. baumannii infections.

  • AIAS Structure of Afragola, Italy
  • Title:Identification and Characterization of Nasal Polyposis and Mycoplasma Superinfection by Scanning Electron Microscopy and Nasal Cytology with Optical Microscopy: A Case Report
  • Time :

Abstract:

Nasal polyposis is characterized by benign, non-cancerous and painless growths originating in the tissue of the nasal cavities and paranasal sinuses. Polyps arise from chronic inflammation due to asthma, recurrent infections, allergies, drug sensitivity or immune disorders. They can obstruct the nasal cavities and thus cause respiratory problems, a reduction in the sense of smell and susceptibility to infections. Furthermore, nasal polyps can recur. Hence the importance of using valid diagnostic methods. In this work, the diagnostic investigation carried out by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and nasal cytology led, for the first time, to the identification of a mycoplasma superinfection on nasal polyposis

Biography:

Arturo Armone Caruso was born in Pozzuoli (Italy-Na) on October 26th 1961. He graduated in Medicine and Surgery at the University of Naples “Federico II” in 1991. He obtained in 1996 at the Institute of Clinic and Pathology Otorhinolaryngology of the University of Naples “Federico II” in 1995, the specialization in Otolaryngology and Head and Neck Surgery with the maximum of votes and praise. Currently, he is a medical director at the AIAS (Association) Italian Disadvantaged Assistance of Afragola) of Afragola where he is Health Director responsible for the ENT sector and nasal cytology. PhD in Applied Morphology and Drug Cytometabolism, Master’s Degree in practical Rinoallergology He is the author of numerous national and international publications. Lecturer at the master of Rinoallergology practice at the University of Rome, “La Sapienza” He has been a speaker at numerous national and international conferences

  • RMIT University, Australia
  • Title:Pathogenicity of Campylobacter hepaticus, the Bacteria Responsible for Spotty Liver Disease in Chicken
  • Time :

Abstract:

Spotty Liver Disease (SLD) causes significant egg production losses and mortality in layer birds. The disease was first reported in the 1950s in the USA and then in a series of other countries, including Australia, New Zealand, Canada, Egypt, Germany, Austria, Italy, Hungary, the Netherlands, Bulgaria, Switzerland, UK and Ukraine. Although the disease has been seen for many years the identification of the causative pathogen was elusive until recently identified as Campylobacter hepaticus, a newly recognised Campylobacter species. Recent outbreaks of SLD have been documented in Australia, the UK, and USA and it is now an emerging disease of significant concern for the poultry industry.
The isolation and characterisation of C. hepaticus has allowed us to develop a reproducible disease induction model that we have used to study the virulence of bacterial isolates and has allowed the assessment of various treatment and control options. Molecular tools have been developed to qualitatively and quantitatively detect the organism in clinical samples, enabling the rapid detection of this bacterium in poultry production systems. Whole genome sequencing of C. hepaticus showed that its closest relatives are Campylobacter coli and Campylobacter jejuni, the other common poultry Campylobacter. Core genome sequence alignments showed the nucleotide divergence of C. hepaticus from the former and the latter was ~68% and 63.8% respectively. RNASeq has been carried out to compare the transcriptomes of in vivo (recovered from chicken bile samples) and in vitro (cultured on horse blood agar plates) grown bacteria. The study identified genes and pathways of C. hepaticus, which may contribute to its survival in the competitive, nutrient and energy-limited environment of the chicken. Gene clusters associated with glucose utilisation, stress response, nitrate reductase, hydrogen metabolism, and sialic acid modification may play an important role in the pathogenicity of C. hepaticus. Research directed towards further understanding C. hepaticus virulence mechanisms is progressing to inform efforts to develop intervention strategies.

Biography:

Dr Hao Van is a Senior Research fellow at School of Science, RMIT University, Australia. Dr Van’s expertise is to apply microbiology and advanced molecular biology skills in identifying the cause of disease in farm animals, understanding the biology of the pathogens causing these diseases and the development of vaccines against these pathogens. She made a breakthrough in poultry research by playing a key role in isolating and identifying the bacteria causing Spotty Liver Disease (SLD) in chickens, which causes high mortality and production losses for the poultry industry. She also works with different groups, nationally and internationally, to study the role of microbiota in animals and humans, and the identification of beneficial bacteria from gut microbiota for use as probiotics.

  • Free University of Brussels (ULB), Belgium
  • Title:Breast Implant Infection with Pasteurella Canis
  • Time :

Abstract:

Zoonotic infections represent an uncommon phenomenon. Few people with pets realise the infectious risk this entails. This case describes a Pasteurella canis infection of a breast implant following close contact between a patient and her cat. A 59-year-old woman developed infection of her breast implant 7 months after implantation. Surgical revision was performed af- ter failure of conservative treatment with antibiotics. Perioperative samples from the periprosthetic fluid were positive for P. canis , a Gram-negative coccobacillus that is present in the oropharyngeal commensal flora of cats and dogs. History revealed that the patient owned a cat for 2 years. This case highlights the possible risk of zoonotic infections in humans with protheses following close contact with a cat. Antibi- otic therapy and surgical revision, with or without removal of the prosthesis constitute the cornerstone of treatment in such cases.

  • Louisiana State University Health Sciences Center, USA
  • Title:Aluminum-Stimulated Production of Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) from the Human Gastrointestinal (GI)-Tract Microbiome-Resident Bacteroides Fragilis
  • Time :

Abstract:

Gram-negative obligate anaerobic bacteria of the human GI-tract-microbiome and their immunogenic secretory products have significant potential to serve as a dynamic, life-long source of extremely potent pro-inflammatory enterotoxigenic compounds highly toxic to the central nervous system (CNS). These microbes and their secreted products: (i) are capable of generating a broad-spectrum of highly neurotoxic, pro-inflammatory and potentially pathogenic molecules; and (ii) these include a highly immunogenic class of amphipathic surface glycolipids known as lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Bacteroides fragilis (B. fragilis), a commensal, Gram negative, non-motile, non-spore forming obligatory anaerobic bacillus, and one of the most abundant bacteria found in the human GI tract, produces a particularly pro-inflammatory and neurotoxic LPS (Bf-LPS). Bf-LPS: (i) is secreted from the B. fragilis outer membrane into the external-medium; (ii) can damage biophysiological barriers via cleavage of zonula adherens cell-cell adhesion proteins, thereby disrupting both the GI-tract barrier and the blood-brain barrier (BBB); (iii) is able to transit GI-tract barriers into the systemic circulation and cross the BBB into the human CNS; and (iv) accumulates within CNS neurons in neurodegenerative disorders such as Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Some of these inflammatory signaling events appear to be mediated by the brain-enriched pro-inflammatory microRNA-146a. This presentation will provide evidence that the incubation of B. fragilis with aluminum sulfate [Al2(SO4)3] is a potent inducer of Bf-LPS. The results suggest for the first time that the pro-inflammatory properties of aluminum may not only be propagated by aluminum itself, but by a stimulation in the production of microbiome-derived Bf-LPS and other pro-inflammatory pathogenic microbial products normally secreted from human GI-tract-resident microorganisms.

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