Day1

  • John Wayne Cancer Institute , USA
  • Title:Paget’s Disease of Bone: A Viral Disorder?
  • Time :

Abstract:

Paget’s disease of bone, is a focal disorder involving one or more bones which is usually diagnosed in individuals over 50 years of age and also affects one or more family members in about 20% of cases. The earliest phase begins with increased numbers of osteoclasts in an area of the skeleton followed by a slow progression of bone resorption throughout the bone. This is followed by increased osteoblastic activity which results in a disorganized structure and an overgrowth of bone. This can lead to deformity and fractures. The familial aspects of the disease led to genetic analyses of patients. In 2002, mutations in the sequestosome1 gene were first reported in 11/24 families and in 18/112 apparently sporadic patients. At least 28 different mutations have been reported. Other gene mutations have been described but sequestosome1 mutations are the most common mutation reported in families. Since several investigators have found that not all family members develop Paget’s disease by 50-60 years even if they have a mutation this is not sufficient to account for the disease. Also the prevalence of the disease has dropped significantly in the past several decades, a finding that is unlikely related to genetic factors. Environmental factors have been evaluated and the most likely one of importance is measles virus. Initially electron microscopy detected nuclear and cytoplasmic structures resembling nucleocapsids of the paramyxoviridae family in osteoclasts but not other bone cells. Further studies utilizing immunohistochemical analyses and reverse transcription PCR provided evidence that measles virus nucleocapsids were in the osteoclasts. Several other studies have not confirmed these results. However the fact the prevalence of the disease has decreased since the availability of measles vaccine in 1963 suggests that measles virus is a likely factor in the development of the disease and genetic factors increase susceptibility.

Biography:

Dr. Singer is a graduate of the University of California in San Francisco School of Medicine and trained in internal medicine at the Wadsworth Veterans Administration Center in Los Angeles. Endocrinology fellowships were done at the Massachusetts General Hospital in Boston and at the Royal Postgraduate Medical School in London. He was also a Clinical Investigator at the Wadsworth Veterans Administration Medical Center. He then moved to the faculty of the University of Southern California for 15 years, spent 4 years at Cedars Sinai Medical Center in Los Angeles and for the past 29 years has been in the Endocrine/Bone disease Program at the John Wayne Cancer Institute at Providence Saint Johns Health Center in Santa Monica. He is a clinical professor of medicine at the David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA. His research interests have been Paget’s disease of bone, osteoporosis, and primary hyperparathyroidism. He is a past president of the American Society for Bone and Mineral Research and a board member of the National Osteoporosis Foundation.

  • Central Institute for Tuberculosis, Russia
  • Title: Genetic and Intra-Species Approaches for Dissecting Tuberculosis Infection Pathogenesis
  • Time :

Abstract:

Pregnant women are increasingly considered a priority group for influenza vaccination, but the evidence in favor relies mainly on observational studies, subject to the “healthy-vaccinee bias”. Propensity score methods – sometimes applied – reduce but cannot eliminate residual confounding.
Meta-analyses of observational studies show relative risks far from the thresholds that would confirm the efficacy of universal vaccination for pregnant women without needing randomized controlled trials (RCTs). Critical articles have shown that in the four RCTs investigating the outcomes of this vaccination there was a tendency to higher offspring mortality. In the largest RCT there was a significant excess of presumed/serious neonatal infections, and also significantly more serious adverse events.
Many widely acknowledged observational results (about hormone replacing therapy, vitamin D, omega-3 fatty acids, etc.) were confuted by RCTs. Therefore the international drive to consider this vaccination a “standard of care” is not justified yet. Moreover, there is the risk of precluding further independent RCTs for “ethical considerations”, so as “to not deny the benefits of influenza vaccinations to pregnant women of a control group”. Instead, before promoting national campaigns for universal vaccination in pregnancy further large, independent and reassuring RCTs are needed, even braving challenging a current paradigm.
Until then, influenza vaccination should be offered to pregnant women only once open information is available about the safety uncertainties, to allow truly informed choices, and anyway promoting also other protective behaviors.

Biography:

Alexander Apt started his research career in 1973 at the Institute for General Genetics, Moscow, with establishment and serological analysis of mutations in the H2 complex, the mouse MHC. In 1979, he moved to the Central Institute for Tuberculosis (CIT), Moscow, and started immunological and genetic studies of tuberculosis infection in inbred mouse strains. Obtained PhD degree in 1984 from the Gamaleya Institute for Microbiology and Epidemiology, Moscow. 1992-1993 – Visiting Scientist at the McGill Center for the Study of Host Resistance, Montreal. Since 1998 – the Head of Laboratory for Immunogenetics, CIT. Professor of Immunology (2002).

  • National Cancer Institute at Frederick, USA
  • Title:The Protective Role of Chemoattractant GPCRs, Formylpeptide Receptors, in Colon Inflammation, Microbiome Balance and Carcinogenesis
  • Time :

Abstract:

A hallmark of inflammatory responses is leukocyte mobilization, which is mediated by bacterial and host tissue-derived chemotactic factors that activate Gi-protein-coupled seven-transmembrane receptors (GPCRs) expressed on host cell surface. Formylpeptide receptors (FPRs, Fprs in mice) are members of the chemoattractant GPCR family, shown to be critical in myeloid cell trafficking during infection, inflammation, immune responses and cancer progression. Accumulating evidence demonstrates that both human FPRs and murine Fprs are involved in many patho-physiological processes because of their expression on a wide variety of cell types in addition to myeloid cells. The unique capacity of FPRs (Fprs) to interact with numerous structurally unrelated, pathogen- as well as host-derived, chemotactic ligands enables these receptors to participate in orchestrated disease initiation, progression and resolution. One murine Fpr member, Fpr2, and its endogenous agonist peptide, Cathelicidin-related antimicrobial peptide (CRAMP), have been demonstrated as key mediators of colon mucosal homeostasis and protection from inflammation, dysbiosis and associated tumorigenesis. Recent availability of genetically engineered mouse models greatly expanded the understanding of the role of FPRs (Fprs) in pathophysiology that places these molecules in the list of potential targets for therapeutic intervention of diseases.

Biography:

Dr. Wang received his M.D. degree in 1983 at Shanghai Second Medical University (currently Shanghai Jiaotong University School of Medicine) Graduate School at the Faculty of Chest Surgery, majoring in the Surgical and Immunological Therapy of Lung Cancer, in Shanghai, P. R. China. In 1987, he obtained a Ph.D. degree at the Lombardy School for High Education with the major in Immunology (located at the Mario Negri Pharmacological Research Institute with Dr. Alberto Matovani as the mentor), Milan, Italy. Dr. Wang joined the National Cancer Institute at Frederick in 1990 as a Visiting Scientist (with Dr. Joost J. Oppenheim as the mentor). He then became an independent Principal Investigator in 1996. In 2002, he was promoted to the position of tenured Senior Investigator. Dr. Wang’s major research interest is the role of G-protein coupled chemoattractant receptors (GPCRs) in pathophysiological conditions.

  • Scientific Committee of Foundation "Align Health and Health", Italy
  • Title:Influenza Vaccination of Pregnant Women and Serious Adverse Events in the Offspring
  • Time :

Abstract:

Pregnant women are increasingly considered a priority group for influenza vaccination, but the evidence in favor relies mainly on observational studies, subject to the “healthy-vaccinee bias”. Propensity score methods – sometimes applied – reduce but cannot eliminate residual confounding.
Meta-analyses of observational studies show relative risks far from the thresholds that would confirm the efficacy of universal vaccination for pregnant women without needing randomized controlled trials (RCTs). Critical articles have shown that in the four RCTs investigating the outcomes of this vaccination there was a tendency to higher offspring mortality. In the largest RCT there was a significant excess of presumed/serious neonatal infections, and also significantly more serious adverse events.
Many widely acknowledged observational results (about hormone replacing therapy, vitamin D, omega-3 fatty acids, etc.) were confuted by RCTs. Therefore the international drive to consider this vaccination a “standard of care” is not justified yet. Moreover, there is the risk of precluding further independent RCTs for “ethical considerations”, so as “to not deny the benefits of influenza vaccinations to pregnant women of a control group”. Instead, before promoting national campaigns for universal vaccination in pregnancy further large, independent and reassuring RCTs are needed, even braving challenging a current paradigm.
Until then, influenza vaccination should be offered to pregnant women only once open information is available about the safety uncertainties, to allow truly informed choices, and anyway promoting also other protective behaviors.

Biography:

Dr. Donzelli was past Director of the Service of Appropriateness Education and EBM at the Agency for Health Protection of Milan. He received his Doctoral degree and specialization in Hygiene&Preventive Medicine from the University of Milan. He has authored several scientific and educational publications in various indexed journals and books, reflecting his research interests in Prevention, Public Health, Medical Education and Comparative Assessment of Drugs&Health Technologies. Dr. Donzelli is also the Editor of the Good clinical practice Pills for doctors and Health education Pills for citizens, and Founder and member of the Executive Board of the Foundation Allineare Sanità e Salute.
Research Interest: Health Promotion, Prevention, Public Health and rewarding systems better aligning the stakeholders’ interests with health, Medical and Lay people Education, Comparative Assessment of Drugs&Health Technologies.

  • Jersey Shore University Medical Center, USA
  • Title:Cytokine Storm Induced New Onset Depression in Patients with COVID-19. A New Look into the Association between Depression and Cytokines -Two Case Reports
  • Time :

Abstract:

Background: Depression appears to be a common complication in patients during and post–COVID-19 infection. Understanding the mechanism of action of cytokines such as interleukin-6, interleukin-10 and others in depression and in cytokine storm syndrome, the core component of COVID- 19, could shine a new light on future treatment options for both disorders.

Objective: This review demonstrates the role of interleukins in COVID-19 pathogenesis and
their role in depression.

Results: We described cases we have treated as an example for the dual role interleukins have in COVID-19 infection and depression and reviewed approximately 70 articles focusing on the role of interleukins in cytokine storm syndrome and depression.

Conclusion: This review highlights the key features of cytokines in both diseases. As the scientific community has more time to recover and process the effect of the current pandemic, we believe that additional research will pave the way to diverse pathways to treat depression in these patients and others.

Biography:

I am a psychiatrist who specializes in Child and Adolescent Psychiatry and Psychosomatic Medicine. I treat children and adults with depression disorder, PTSD, delirium, somatization and drug and alcohol addiction. My specialty involves the evaluation and treatment of patients with co-morbid medical illness and psychiatric symptoms. I have a special interest in organ transplantation and worked at the Children’s Hospital of Philadelphia and Yale-New Haven Hospital with liver, kidney and heart transplant candidates. During my time at the Medical College of Wisconsin, I was director of transplant services.
As a result of the COVID-19 pandemic, I have focused on patients who exhibited complications such as delirium, depression and Guillain-Barre Syndrome.
Most of my work in recent years has focused on Consultation-Liaison Psychiatry or Psychosomatic Medicine. I remain active academically and continue to publish and give lectures.
I recently received the honor of becoming a Fellow of the Academy of Consultation-Liaison Psychiatry.

  • Federal Fluminense University, Brazil
  • Title:Sporotrichosis: Challenges of a Fungal Neglected Disease
  • Time :

Abstract:

Sporotrichosis is a subcutaneous mycosis caused by pathogenic fungi of the genus Sporothrix. Sporothrix schenckii infections have a worldwide distribution; the Brazilian outbreak is caused by S. brasiliensis while, in China, S. globosa transmitted through the sapronotic route became an epidemic among farmers. Sporothrix inoculation is required for infection and often occurs through a cutaneous trauma caused by plant thorns and wood splinters, popularly known as Gardner’s disease, or by cat scratching/biting. This last route of infection became important in Brazil since the mid-90’s outbreak, leading up to the currently hyperendemic neglected zoonosis in this country, along with recent evidence of a potential spreading to South America. In fact, S. brasiliensis is highly pathogenic, and cats show a unique interaction with this fungus, possibly determined by its high susceptibility, displaying severe disease forms which require prolonged antifungal administration. Frequently, domestic felines are refractory to itraconazole, the main azole used in the sporotrichosis treatment, with reports of relapse and treatment abandonment. As in other fungal infections, the immune system plays a central role in the pathogenesis of sporotrichosis. In cats the most unfavorable prognosis presents due to indiscriminate spread of Sporothrix yeasts, maintaining the high fungal load on the lesions and increasing the zoonotic potential of this host, thus resulting in severe clinical conditions. This suggests that in addition to the virulence of the fungus, feline immunity may contribute to the poor ability to control Sporothrix multiplication. The different types of host immune response to Sporothrix virulence factors were both in vitro and in vivo studied, mainly in murine and human models. Nonetheless, very little is known about the immune response of cats against Sporothrix, motivating our group to mobilize efforts and to describe a novel protocol of S. schenckii and S. brasiliensis in vitro exposure to domestic feline PBMCs. Such new method will provide a unique opportunity to investigate Sporothrix-cat interaction and, therefore, open doors for the future discovery of new ways to better treat feline sporotrichosis, a major Public Health concern. Indeed, recently, we described the coinfection of domestic felines residing in hyperendemic sporotrichosis areas by more than one S. brasiliensis isolates. These show disparate phenotypic parameters such as cytokine levels after PBMC interaction and different responses to antifungal agents. Likewise, it is quite possible that cat coinfection by this species represents a common occurrence with potential clinical implications. In this lecture we will present and discuss our main research data focusing on the “One Health approach” and its key concepts for better facing and future coping with this relevant fungal disease.

Biography:

Associate Professor at the Department of Microbiology and Parasitology at Fluminense Federal University, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Advises masters, doctoral and post-doctoral students in three Graduate Programs (Microbiology and Parasitology, Veterinary Medicine and Science and Biotechnology). Leader of the Research Group Center for Microorganisms’ Investigation, coordinates the homonymous laboratory. Ad hoc reviewer of high-impact journals and a consultant member of international funding agencies. Member of the “Working Group on Sporotrichosis” of the International Society for Human and Animal Mycoses (ISHAM). Leading subjects of investigation are the pathogen-host interaction, molecular and serologycal diagnostic methods and the molecular epidemiology of infectious and parasitic agents, especially Sporothrix spp. and Plasmodium vivax.

  • Institute of Allergies and Self-Immunity , Mexico
  • Title: Cytokines and Growth Factors Contained in a Biologic Product Administrated Sublingually for Autoimmune and Allergic Diseases
  • Time :

Abstract

The Mexican population widely uses traditional medicine from herbal treatments, alternative
therapies, and the well-known “immuno-modulator,” which aims to relieve both allergic and
autoimmune diseases by modulating the immune response. Theoretically, it has been managed that
auto-allergens are eliminated in the urine, cytokines released according to the inflammatory
response of each individual. In the ’50s, Dr. Maximiliano Ruiz Castañeda develops a method to take
advantage of the eliminated elements in the urine to induce an immunomodulatory response.
The treatment has been employed for more than 50 years of uninterrupted use, partly supporting its
effectiveness. However, no previous study has determined the composition of this
immunomodulator. Despite the benefits of this treatment, the molecular mechanisms underlying its
effects have not been thoroughly investigated. Therefore, this study aims to identify
immunoregulatory peptides, such as cytokines and growth factors, in the immune-modulator, and
las physical, chemical, and quality characteristics to effectively and safely use this product. Urine and
immune-modulator concentrations of cytokines and growth factors were assessed using a Luminex
assay. Twenty-one cytokines and growth factors were identified in immune-modulator samples.
MCP-1 was identified in 100% of the samples; MIP-1β, IL-8, RANTES, INF-γ, and IP-10 were identified
in approximately 65–70% of samples; IL5, IL-1B, and IL-17 in 50–60%; eotaxin, VEGF, IL-6, and FGF in
about 40%; MIP-1α, IL-9, GM-CSF, G-CSF, IL-12, and IL-15 in about 20–30%; other were found in less
percentage.
Additionally, patients exhibited significant changes in IL-1β, IFN-γ, and MCP-1 concentrations after
treatment with the immune-modulator. The immune-modulator is an alternative treatment based on
the sublingual administration of cytokines and growth factors obtained from the urine of patients. In
this study, its composition was characterized. pH, sterility was also verified. The isolated products
could be responsible for the effects of the immune-modulator. Further trials are required to evaluate
the effective delivery of these molecules by the administration route described

  • University of South Florida, USA
  • Title:Latent Class Analysis of Exposure to Childhood Trauma and Health Risks among Justice-Involved Youth: Gender Differences
  • Time :

Abstract:

Justice-involved youth experience increased risk of exposure to childhood trauma and health risks. Little is known about the heterogeneity in trauma and health risk experiences among delinquent youth, especially across gender. The current study uses latent class analysis to examine typologies of self-reported exposure to trauma and health risks among a sample of juvenile offenders.
Participants: Data were collected in an innovative Health Coach service for youth entering a centralized intake, Juvenile Assessment Center (JAC) in a southeastern U.S. city. Arrested juveniles in the service area of the JAC are taken to the JAC for processing; youths charged by the State Attorney’s Office but not arrested may also be processed at the JAC. At intake, each youth is assessed for risk and interviewed about her/his crime by JAC intake personnel, after which s/he is either released to parent custody or detained, depending on level of risk and offense. During the intake process, youths are approached by Health Coach service staff. In addition to collecting background and psychosocial information, urinalysis is performed for recent drug use, as well as rapid testing for HIV, and urine testing for other STDs. The service follows-up with youth and provides prompt linkage to treatment for youth who are drug-involved, test positive for HIV or other STDs, or screen high on an evidence-based depression inventory. Youth in the current study received Health Coach services between January 1, 2017 and December 31, 2017. To avoid multiple counting of youth, initial JAC entry data were used in the analyses; over 80% had one entry; and 435 females and 1,198 males were included in the analyses. Participation was purely voluntary. The State’s Public Health law does not require youth 12 years and over to obtain parental consent for STD or HIV testing or treatment. Health Coach staff obtained youth consent prior to initiating services.
Results: Findings indicate the presence of three groups of trauma and health risk behaviors within the gender groups. Females: three subgroups demonstrated a linear trend in increasing prevalence of trauma and health risk. Males: three subgroups reflected a generally low-risk group, a group with high rates of marijuana use and risky sexual behaviors, and a group with high rates of depression, family problems, sexual assault victimization, and bullying. Analyses for covariates suggested racial differences for certain forms of trauma and health risks. The findings highlight gendered intervention strategies should be considered for justice-involved youth.

Biography:

Dr. Dembo is Professor Criminology at the University of South Florida, and has published extensively in the fields of substance use, mental health, program evaluation, and health risk issues among at-risk youth. He was Principal Researcher on the Miami-Dade, National Demonstration Project, which transformed the front end of the juvenile justice system in that County. He has been PI or Co-PI of numerous NIH/NIDA grant projects. He is a member of several community committees, including serving as Chair of the JAC Advisory Committee. He has been a major party in the flow of millions of dollars in federal, state and local funds into the University of South Florida and the Tampa Bay area for innovative research and service delivery projects addressing the needs of high risk youth, their families and their surrounding communities.

  • HSE University , USA
  • Title:The Use of Mendelian Genetics to Establish a Biological Function for the Left-Handed Z-RNA Conformation
  • Time :

Abstract:

Flipons are genetically encoded elements that adopt different conformations, such as Z-DNA, G4-Quartets and Triplexes under physiological conditions. The structures are formed from simple sequence repeats and are recognized by structure-specific proteins that determine outcomes. I will discuss the biological function of Z-flipons, using the Z-RNA binding domain, Zα, of the RNA editing enzyme ADAR1 as an example. Variants of this domain are causal for the Type I Interferonopathy Aicardi Goutières syndrome. The mechanism by which Z-RNA formation prevents amplification by interferon response against self, double-stranded RNAs will be discussed. The concept of using flipons to encode binary switches, memory elements and other control elements of the genomic circuitry will be discussed.

  • National Research Council of Italy , Italy
  • Title:Antimicrobial Polymer Blends based on Imidazolium Ionic Liquids
  • Time :

Abstract:

The increasing occurrence of antibiotic resistance has led to a growing interest for the design and production of new antimicrobial agents. Among alternatives to conventional biocides, ionic liquids (ILs), low temperature molten salts containing organic cations, mainly constituted by head groups with attached one or more aliphatic alkyl chain substituents, and organic or inorganic anions have been intensively studied. The development of polymeric materials with antimicrobial properties is important for their applications in health care and safety, principally for hospitalized patients. In addition to possessing the specific bacteriostatic and/or bactericidal capability, the antimicrobial agents must have physical and chemical characteristics that allow them to be easily incorporated into polymeric matrices, without affecting polymer properties and performance and avoiding complex synthesis procedures. This presentation will concern the synthesis and characterization of imidazolium ionic liquids (ILs) as active antimicrobial agents, the realization of polymer/ILs blends and the analysis of their thermal and mechanical properties, antibacterial activity, biocompatibility and cytotoxicity. Moreover, the surface distribution of ILs and wettability of the realized antibacterial blends together with the ILs release from them will be analyzed.

Biography:

Dr. Daniela Clotilde Zampino is a researcher at the Institute for Polymers, Composites and Biomaterials (IPCB, Catania) of the National Research Council of Italy. Her research fields include synthesis and characterization of ionic liquids; development of antimicrobial polymer blends (PVC, PE, SEBS, Pebax®Rnew) loaded with different antimicrobial agents (ionic liquids, silver zeolites, silver nanoparticles, ferrocene derivatives, etc.); characterization of commercial and synthetic polymeric materials; determination of aromas loss (scalping) and migration of additives and monomers from polymeric materials; determination of metals concentration from different matrices (soil, water, polymeric materials and plants). She has been lecturer, tutor of fellows and Principal Investigator (PI) of research activities in PON (National Operational Project) and POR FESR Sicilia projects. She is also supervisor of MSc students and carries out training, tutoring and scientific dissemination activities.

  • University of Panama , Republic of Panama
  • Title:Prevalence of Antibiotic Resistance and Virulent Factors in Nosocomial Clinical Isolates of Pseudomonas aeruginosa from Panama
  • Time :

Abstract:

Background
Pseudomonas aeruginosa is an important causative agent of nosocomial infections. As pathogen, P. aeruginosa is of increasing clinical importance due to its ability to develop high-level multidrug resistance (MDR).
Methods
The aim of the present study was to better understand the intrinsic virulence of circulating strains of Pseudomonas aeruginosa, by surveying and characterizing the antibiotic resistance profiles and prevalence of virulence factors in 51 clinical isolates of P. aeruginosa obtained from children admitted to Hospital del Niño-Panamá during the period of October 2016 until March 2017. Antimicrobial susceptibilities were assessed by determining the minimum inhibitory concentration for 12 antibiotics against P. aeruginosa clinical isolates using the VITEK system (https://www.biomerieux.com). Additionally, all isolates were examined by Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) for the presence of components of the MexAB-OprM efflux pump system (mexABR) and pyoverdine receptor genes and betalactamases resistance genes (ESBL) using gene-specific primers.
Results
A total of 51 pyoverdine producing clinical isolates were analyzed, all of which expressed resistance genes such as genes of the MexAB-OprM efflux pump system (mexABR) and pyoverdine receptor genes (fpvA). Out of 51 MDR isolates, 22 were ESBL producers. The most common ESBL gene was blaTEM expressed by 43% of the isolates. The isolates tested in this study showed increased resistance to antibiotics in the following categories: (i) penicillins (ampicillin (69%), piperacillin (22%); (ii) pyrimethamines (trimethoprim, 65%); (iii) nitrofurans (nitrofurantoin, 63%), and (iv) third-generation cephalosporin cefotaxime (53%). These results underscore a high prevalence of MDR amongst clinical isolates from Panama.
Conclusions
The present study indicates that prevalence of BlaTEM-carrying strains is increasing with subsequent multidrug resistance in Panamá and as well reported worldwide. The virulent factors identified in this study provide valuable information regarding the prevalence of resistance genes and their potential impact on treatments that exploit the unique physiology of the pathogen. To prevent further spread of MDR, the proportions of resistant strains of Pseudomonas aeruginosa should be constantly evaluated on healthcare institutions of Panamá. More importantly, this information can be used to better understand the evolution and dissemination of strains hoping to prevent the development of resistance in Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Future studies quantifying the expression of these virulent genes will emphasize on the acquisition of multidrug resistance.

  • Indiana University Fort Wayne , USA
  • Title:Adipose Tissue Dysregulation Leads to Chronic Systemic Inflammation
  • Time :

Abstract:

Endocrine organs are known for synthesizing and secreting hormones. Those hormones go on to regulate bodily functions throughout the body. In the last 20-40 years, it has been established that adipose tissue does just that. The hormones released from adipose tissue are referred to as adipokines and include leptin, adiponectin, resistin and vistatin. This lecture will focus on leptin and adiponectin specifically. These adipokines influence many bodily functions including appetite, insulin sensitivity, inflammation, immunity, and fatty acid oxidation to name a few. Normally, adipose tissue, seen in lean individuals, secretes leptin in limited quantities and adiponectin more abundantly. These hormones go on and work to create a state of homeostasis. However, dysregulation of adipose tissue occurs when these hormones are produced in discordance with normal values and effects are seen in processes throughout the body. Nearly all cells in the human body have receptors for leptin and adiponectin; which have been shown in the literature to be important regulators of inflammation. Leptin tends to have pro-inflammatory actions and adiponectin tends to have anti-inflammatory actions. When adipose tissue is dysregulated leptin and adiponectin production is altered and inflammation is then affected. Adipose tissue continues to produce adipokines but the levels of adipokines have changed. Leptin production increases and adiponectin production decreases. The result is increased inflammation without a pathogen or injury that inflicted damage, which is referred to as sterile inflammation or chronic systemic inflammation. Consequences of adipose tissue dysregulation can include insulin resistance, increased inflammation, dyslipidemia, increased thrombosis, atherosclerosis, and cellular proliferation. Which in turn leads to increased risk of chronic diseases such as diabetes, cardiovascular disease, hypertension, depression, arthritis, and cancer.

Biography:

Dr Jamie Rausch, PhD, RN, is an Assistant Professor at Indiana University Fort Wayne. She graduated from Ohio State University with a PhD in nursing science in 2020 and was a Robert Wood Johnson Foundation, Future of Nursing Scholar. She received a BSN with Cum Laude honors from Ohio University. Her research is focused on clarifying biological links between systemic inflammation and chronic diseases specifically effects of adipokines, leptin & adiponectin, which are inflammation regulators.

  • National Institute of the Republic of Serbia , Serbia
  • Title:Analysis and Characterization of the Novel Exopolysaccharide (EPS) Produced by a Probiotic Strain of L. reuteri B2 and its Microencapsulation using Alginate-Based Biopolymers
  • Time :

Abstract:

Probiotics play a central role in the interaction of the producing microorganism with the environment including different hosts. According to the beneficial effects that these microbes obtain, in this study, we investigated the probiotic activity of the Lactobacillus reuteri B2, as well as, the exopolysaccharides (EPS) that this strain produced. L. reuteri B2 was isolated from the feces of C57BL/6 mice and assessed on probiotic activity. L. reuteri B2 was identified by 16S rDNA sequencing, in which the cell viability in acidic conditions at pH
2.0 was 64% after 2 h, and in the presents of 0.30% of the bile salts, after 6 h, was 37%. Antimicrobial assay with L. reuteri B2 showed maximum diameters against Klebsiela oxytoca J7 (12.5±0.71mm). We further hypothesized if L. reuteri B2 strain in the free form can survive all conditions in the gastrointestinal tract (GIT) then the utilization of the appropriate biomaterials would ameliorate its stability and viability in GIT. L. reuteri B2 was microencapsulated into sodium alginate-(Na-alg) and different content of Na-alg and sodium maleate (SM) beads. Characterization materials enveloped their thermal characteristics (TGA/ DTA analysis) and structure using: scanning electron microscopy (SEM), FTIR, and particle size distribution. The high survival rate of L. reuteri B2 at low pH from 2.0 to 4.0 and in the presence of the bile salts, at concentrations up to 0.30%, was obtained. L. reuteri B2 showed strong antimicrobial activity and the best protection microencapsulated with Na-alg + SM in simulated gastric juices (SGJ). EPS extracted from L. reuteri B2, were analyzed and characterized using chemical and biological analysis of this polymer. Functional characteristics of the producing strain, such as, adhesion assay to colonocytes, antioxidative and cytotoxic properties of EPS were also determined.

Biography:

Mina Popovic, PhD, is currently working as Assistant Research Professor at Institute of Chemistry, Technology, and Metallurgy, National Institute of the Republic of Serbia. She graduated on December 2009 at Department of Biochemical Engineering and Biotechnology, Faculty of Technology and Metallurgy, University of Belgrade, Serbia. She got a full fellowship for PhD studies in Italy. She defended her PhD thesis on February 2015. at PhD School of Science and Technologies for Health Products, Department of Life Sciences, University of Modena and Reggio Emilia, Modena, Italy. During the PhD studies she got the fellowship as visiting research assistant in the laboratory of Professor Dr. David A Mills, Institute Robert Mondavi, Departments of Food Science and Technology at the University of California. She supervised and worked with students during their masters studies and thesis. She is interested in the field of prebiotics and probiotics, focusing on Lactic Acid Bacteria (LAB) and bifidobacteria, biopolymers and its modifications, carrires, microencapsulation, exopolysaccharides, beneficial effects of the prebiotics and probiotics on human health. Last publication: ”Characterization of potential probiotic strain, L. reuteri B2, and its microencapsulation using alginate-based biopolymers”, doi: 10.1016/ j.ijbiomac.2021.04.177.

  • CTO and Chairman of Board of Directors, MeMed
  • Title:Monitoring the Host Immune Response to Predict COVID-19 Severity and Response to Treatment
  • Time :

Abstract:

Out of a hundred COVID-19 patients, less than five percent will experience severe disease, hospitalization, ventilation and mortality . A number of risk factors have been proposed and validated in wide population studies, and include age, smoking history and diabetes. However, each of these factors lack the sufficient sensitivity and specificity to support the early detection of patients at high risk of severe COVID-19. Additionally, in patients who already present with moderate to severe COVID-19, physicians lack effective and accessible tools to monitor disease deterioration or response to treatment. Given COVID-19’s high correlation with a patient’s immune response, new host immune response measurement technologies are showing promise in changing the paradigm of COVID-19 patient stratification and management.

Researchers at Israel’s Rabin Medical Center, in collaboration with MeMed, have published prospective data on the potential utility of a 15-minute point of need solution that measures TRAIL and IP-10, two viral-induced host immune biomarkers, in stratifying patients with severe COVID-19 and managing their treatment. This data, in addition to a decade-long series of studies on dozens of other respiratory viral infections, shows that serial measurements of the viral-induced immune proteins TRAIL and IP-10 can be a valuable resource for predicting disease severity and progression, and for monitoring individual patient responses to treatment for severe COVID-19.

In this session, Dr. Kfir Oved will discuss the study findings, as well as recent advances in the technologies used to probe the host response to infection, particularly those based on proteomics. The session will also highlight how predictive biomarkers and the actionable insights they provide can potentially be used to improve COVID-19 patient management, enabling interventions that can help reduce ICU admissions, the need for ventilation and, ultimately, mortality.

Biography:

Dr. Kfir Oved has over 15 years of combined industry and academic experience, leading interdisciplinary teams combining biotechnology and biochemistry, applied immunology, engineering, and big data in multiple clinical applications. Kfir co-founded MeMed and serves as its Chairman of the Board. For over a decade, he served as CTO of MeMed, where he led the inception, development, and clinical validation of the entire MeMed technology suite, including the MeMed BV™ test, and the MeMed Key™ point-of-need platform, from an idea on a napkin to development completion.
Dr. Oved holds a B.A. in Biology (Summa Cum Laude), B.Sc. in medicine (Magna Cum Laude), and Ph.D. in molecular immunology, and trained for six years at the Technion School of Medicine. Dr. Oved is the co- author of over 100 granted and pending patents, the author of over 20 peer-reviewed publications, and the recipient of multiple research excellence awards, including the Gutwirth Excellence award an Wolf Award for research students. In 2019, he was listed among the top 25 voices in precision medicine by BIS research. Dr. Oved is among the inceptors of the AI-based health data company Navina and serves as its Chief Strategy and Innovation Officer. Last year, he founded Canopy Immuno-Therapeutics, a stealth mode biotech company engaged in developing a novel immunotherapeutic approach for autoimmunity and life-threatening allergy.

  • Slovak Medical University, Slovakia.
  • Title:Left Inferior Epigastric Artery Injury in COVID-19 Patient
  • Time :

Abstract:

Introduction
Management of COVID-19 pneumonia cases is a medical challenge. However, the situation becomes worse if the patient has coexisting morbidities or newly developed complications. The study is about managing rectus sheath haematoma (RSH) in a patient with COVID-19 pneumonia.
Presentation of case
The patient was a 75-year-old male, presenting with bilateral COVID-19 pneumonia, with pulmonary embolism complications. Therapeutic anticoagulation by subcutaneous Clexane injection was administered. A left RSH was observed, and the patient fell and underwent haemorrhagic shock. Laparotomy was done for the evacuation of the haematoma.
Discussion
Contrast-enhanced computed tomography (CECT) is an essential tool for diagnosing RSH, identifying the source of bleeding, type of haematoma, and compression of the urinary system.
Conclusion
Surgical management of RSH in COVID-19 patients is superior to interventional radiology during the rush pandemic period.

Biography:

Dr. Hasan Bakirli is a resident in General Surgery currently working in St. Cyril and Methodius hospital in Bratislava, Slovakia. Dr. Hasan is very hard working. He has graduated from the Slovak Medical University in June 2020.

  • Slovak Medical University, Slovakia
  • Title:Left Inferior Epigastric Artery Injury in COVID-19 Patient
  • Time :

Abstract:

Introduction
Management of COVID-19 pneumonia cases is a medical challenge. However, the situation becomes worse if the patient has coexisting morbidities or newly developed complications. The study is about managing rectus sheath haematoma (RSH) in a patient with COVID-19 pneumonia.
Presentation of case
The patient was a 75-year-old male, presenting with bilateral COVID-19 pneumonia, with pulmonary embolism complications. Therapeutic anticoagulation by subcutaneous Clexane injection was administered. A left RSH was observed, and the patient fell and underwent haemorrhagic shock. Laparotomy was done for the evacuation of the haematoma.
Discussion
Contrast-enhanced computed tomography (CECT) is an essential tool for diagnosing RSH, identifying the source of bleeding, type of haematoma, and compression of the urinary system.
Conclusion
Surgical management of RSH in COVID-19 patients is superior to interventional radiology during the rush pandemic period.

Biography:

Dr. Ilkin Bakirli is a resident in Vascular Surgery currently working in the National Institute of Cardiovascular diseases in Bratislava, Slovakia. Dr. Ilkin is a young hard working doctor with demonstrated determination to learn more and more. He has graduated from the Slovak Medical University in June 2020.

  • Federal University, Brazil
  • Title:Staphylococcus saprophyticus Studies Related to Virulence, Persistence and Immunoproteomic Approach for Diagnosis
  • Time :

Abstract:

Staphylococcus saprophyticus is a Gram-positive and coagulase negative cocci that composes the skin microbiota and can act as opportunistic agent causing urinary tract infections (UTI), being more frequent in sexually active young women. The ability of a pathogen to cause infection in the host is associated to its ability to adhere to host cells and to survive to host immune defenses. Our results show that clinical strains can possess differences in the protein repertoire, specially related to expression of virulence factors. Phenotypic, genotypic and proteomic differences reflect in the ability to survive during interaction with host cells and our data describes proteomic flexibility among S. saprophyticus strains reflecting in virulence and persistence. On the other hand, the proteins secreted by pathogenic microorganisms are the first molecules to interact with the host during infection, for this reason, the secreted antigens represent important targets for the development of diagnostic tests, vaccines and immunotherapies for infectious diseases. Our research group detected – by using immunoproteomic approach – epitopes of B cells from S. saprophyticus secreted proteins. The detection and selection of potential targets for the identification of S. saprophyticus can be used to develop new quickly diagnostic tools for detecting UTI.

Biography:

Juliana Alves Parente Rocha is a biomedical doctor with a doctorate in Medical Sciences from the University of Brasília. She is an associate professor at the Federal University of Goiás (UFG) in the biochemistry and molecular biology department and a research productivity fellow in Brazil. She has published 25 articles in international journals in the past 5 years. She is currently coordinator of the graduate program in genetics and molecular biology at UFG and one of the coordinators of the COVID- 19 diagnostic campaign laboratory from UFG.

  • Insmed, Germany
  • Title:Real-world Treatment Patterns in Patients with Nontuberculous Mycobacterial Lung Disease in General and Pneumologist Practices in Germany
  • Time :

Abstract:

Nontuberculous mycobacterial lung disease (NTMLD) is a rare, progressive disease with an increasing incidence worldwide.
The aim of this retrospective study was to analyze the baseline characteristics and management of NTMLD in general and pneumologist practices in Germany.
This retrospective study included patients with a culture-confirmed diagnosis of NTMLD documented between October 1, 2014 and September 30, 2019 by 125 general practitioners (GP) and 31 office-based pulmonologists from the IMS Disease Analyzer Database (IQVIA).
A total of 159 patients managed by German GPs (mean age 59 ± 19 years, 51% female) and 236 patients managed by pulmonologists (mean age 62 ± 14 years, 58% female) were analyzed. In total, 45% (72/159) and 40% (94/236) of patients managed by GPs and pulmonologists respectively received antibiotic therapy for NTMLD. This therapy lasted for ≥6 months in 42%, for ≥ 12 months in 24%, and ≥18 months in 8% of patients. The average therapy duration was longer in patients treated by pulmonologists (241 ± 196 days) than in patients treated by GPs (113 ± 152 days). A total of 27% of patients managed by GPs and 45% of those managed by pulmonologists respectively received guideline-based therapy (GBT), defined as combination therapy with macrolide (azi-/ clarithromycin) + ethambutol + rifabutin/rifampicin, at least once; however, almost all patients (100% in the GP group, 96% in the pulmonologist group) also received non-GBT regimens intermediately.
A considerable number of patients with NTMLD were not managed in accordance with the German guidelines and a substantial proportion also discontinue therapy prematurely. NTMLD management should be improved through appropriate referral pathways and collaboration between expert centers and primary or secondary care physicians.

Biography:

Marko Obradovic is a Health Economics & Outcomes Research professional at Insmed. He has dedicated his career in supporting patient access to innovative medicines. He has been leading studies exploring how diseases and their management impact patients’ lives and healthcare systems. He holds a doctorate degree of Pharmaceutical Sciences at the University of Ljubljana, Slovenia, and currently lives in Germany.

  • Colorado State University, USA
  • Title:Recent Developments in Diagnostics for Adult Pulmonary Tuberculosis: (2012-2020)
  • Time :

Abstract:

Tuberculosis remains one of the leading causes of death worldwide. Although, WHO’s latest Global TB Report says that 2018 saw a reduction in the number of TB deaths-an estimated 36% of new TB cases remain undiagnosed or unreported, partly due to the limitations of current diagnostic tools used. Conventional diagnostic tests for microbiological confirmation rely on sputum samples, which can be difficult to obtain and have low diagnostic sensitivity in children, and patients with extrapulmonary TB (EPTB). A major component of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis cell envelope is lipoarabinomannan (LAM), non-covalently associated with the membrane and extends to the exterior of the cell wall. LAM from a culture is heterogeneous in size, branching pattern, acylation, and phosphorylation on the arabinan and mannan portions and has an average molecular weight of 15.4 kilodaltons. With bacterial replication and degradation in the lung, LAM is released, circulating in the blood, filtered across the glomerular basal membrane of the kidneys into urine. We and others have shown that urinary LAM is a viable biomarker for diagnosis of active TB. Many of the recent developments in the structure of LAM in urine, its antigenicity and availability in clinical specimens as a biomarker to develop affordable PoC tests will be presented.

Biography:

Education
1971-Visva Bharati University, India B.Sc Hons in Organic Chemistry
1973-Visva Bharati University, India M.Sc in Organic Chemistry
1980- University of London, UK, Ph.dCarbohydrate Chemistry, synthesis
1982- York University, Canada , Post Doctoral Fellow in plant polysaccharides
1985-Colorado State University, Post Doctoral Fellow in ID (Mycobacteria)

Personal Statement
In the early years, my research had focused on glycomics, glycobiology, genetics and pathogenesis of major cell envelope antigens of M. tuberculosis. I was funded by the WHO and NIH for twenty years. A major portion of this work contributed to our present day understanding of role of lipoarabinomannan (LAM) in pathogenesis. This also provided the premise for investigating LAM as a biomarker for TB Diagnostics today. I have also worked on the metabolomics analysis of granuloma development in the lungs of animals infected with M. tuberculosis and showed for the first time that semi solid NMR i.e. High Resolution Magic Angle spinning (HRMAS) can be applied directly to infected granulomas. I have used Mass Spectrometry and have recently developed methods to analyze oligosaccharides without any use of derivatization. I have successfully administered research projects funded by the NIH, Philanthropic Organizations and Universities, (e.g. recruiting, staffing, research protections, budget), collaborated with other researchers, and produced peer-reviewed publications from each project. I am author or co-author of 130 research papers listed in PubMed. I have been the PI or Co-PI of several NIH research grants, a member of special or ad hoc NIH study sections, all of which dealt with bacterial diseases. Due to recent efforts in our laboratory, we have now developed methods where LAM could be released successfully from complexes in serum and urine, and then detected in subnanomolar concentrations.

  • University of Seville, Spain
  • Title:Dynamics and Numerical Simulations to Predict Empirical Antibiotic Treatment of Multi-Resistant Pseudomonas Aeruginosa Infection.
  • Time :

Abstract:

This lecture discloses an epidemiological mathematical model to predict an empirical treat- ment for dogs infected by Pseudomonas aeruginosa. This dangerous pathogen is one of the leading causes of multi-resistant infections and can be transmitted from dogs to humans. Numerical simulations and appropriated codes were developed using Matlab software to gather information concerning long-time dynamics of the susceptible, infected and recov- ered individuals. All data compiled from the mathematical model was used to provide an appropriated antibiotic sensitivity panel for this specific infection. In this study, several variables have been included in this model to predict which treatment should be pre- scribed in emergency cases, when there is no time to perform an antibiogram or the cost of it could not be assumed. In particular, we highlight the use of this model aiming to become part of the convenient toolbox of Public Health research and decision-making in the design of the mitigation strategy of bacterial pathogens.

Biography:

María Pérez-Aranda graduated in Veterinary Medicine in the University of Cordoba (Spain) in 2013. She has specialized in Dermatology, obtaining the GP certificate in Dermatology of the International School of Veterinary Postgraduate Studies (ISVPS) in 2016. She combines her clinical work with her research career, doing her PhD degree in Pharmacy in the University of Seville in Organic Chemistry and Microbiology and Parasitology departments. Also she is part of PAIDI-Bio-307 research group at the Veterinary University in Cordoba. She has published numerous papers and book chapters in national and international journals and manuals and has contributed with several communications in national and international congresses. In addition, she is affiliated at the European Society of Veterinary Dermatology and the Spanish Association of Specialists in Small Animal Medicine.

  • Siksha O Anusandhan University, India
  • Title:Lifestyle Transition from Environment to Opportunist of Chryseobacterium gallinarum
  • Time :

Abstract:

The lifestyle transition in a bacteria from environment to opportunist results in either the loss or/and acquisition of specific genes. Such changeovers in turn will help them adapted to inhabit and sustain at the starting point for interactions with new hosts.
We have come across one such MDR Chryseobacterium gallinarum from OPD of a tertiary care hospital of India from a 20 years old female urine sample. WGS analysis of the bacteria shared >99% identity with one keratin degrading non-pathogenic C. gallinarum, reported from a pharyngeal scrape of a seemingly healthy chicken from the state of Saxony-Anhalt, Germany. The multi-drug resistant phenotypic profiling of the strain differed from the respective genomic information and found harboring two novel β-lactamases; an ambler class blaIND-17 and a serine blaCIA-5. Sensitivity to vancomycin by the isolate, the uncommon event of any gram negative bacteria further added to our curiosity which could be due to complete loss of LPS in C. gallinarum conferring polymyxin resistance. The discovery of mutated lpxD gene from genome analysis presents additional evidence in support, though needs further validation. Fluorescent Microscopic-Hela Cell invasion assay showed the infection ability of the isolate, a primary episode towards evolutionary transition from environmental to pathogenic.
So far our knowledge goes, this is the first report of the evolution of Chryseobacterium gallinarum from an environmental to a pathogenic multidrug-resistant bacterium harbouring co-resistance to antibiotics of last resort carbapenems and colistin.

Biography:

Enketeswara Subudhi Alumni of Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur, Now Professor, Center for Biotechnology, Siksha ‘O’ Anusandhan (Deemed to be) University, Bhubaneswar, India Since 2006, Before that Senior Lecturer at Amity Institute of Biotechnology, Amity University, New Delhi, Since 2004. Biotech Industry: Earlier to 2004, Product Development officer, International Panacea Ltd., New Delhi and Scientist, Quality Control, Jain Foods (100% E.O.U), Jain Groups of Company, Jalgaon
Present Area of Research: Understanding molecular mechanisms behind MDR in Bacteria, Metagenomics, Metatranscriptomics of microbiome of thermophilic ponds, Microbial community study of oral cavity, Repurposing of FDA approved drugs against resistant bacteria
Total Citations: 810, h-index: 14, i10-index: 20 RGscore: 29.65
Publication: Total (137), International Journals: 75, Seminars: 50, Book Chapters: 12, Springer Book: 1,
Journal Editor: International Res. J. of Ind. and Env. Biotech., ISSN IS: 2581-7906
Editorial board Member: Journal Pure and Applied Microbiology
Editing & Reviewing for Esteemed journals: Scientific Reports, PLoS One, Gene; Science of the Total Environment; BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine; Infection and Drug Resistance, Microbial Ecology; Microbial Pathogenesis; 3 Biotech; Infectious Diseases and Public Health; Microbial Drug Resistance; Plant Physiology and Biochemistry; Process Biochemistry;
Extra Mural funded Project: Total: Rs 2.7 crores, Patent: 1
Mentoring PDFs: 2(1-DST young scientists, 1-DST Research Associate), SRF: 2 (ICMR)
Ph. D Guide: 12, Awarded: 5, To be Awarded: 7
Foreign Country Visited: Presented paper at International Biotech Symposium, China IBS-2008.
Research Collaboration:
1. University of Madison, Wisconsin, USA: Potential of ginger terpenoids in prevention of cancer cell proliferation
2. Technology Futures Institute, Teesside University, Middlesbrough, UK: Enzyme production through Solid waste fermentation
Awards & Distinctions:
• Post-Doctoral Fellowship: SERC Visiting Fellowship (2012) by DST, New Delhi.
• Biopesticide Expert to Government of Orissa (2004)
Transfer of Biotechnology to Community: Capacity building through training rural community on “Value addition to agricultural produce through Biotechnological intervention”.

  • Siksha O Anusandhan University, India
  • Title:Periodontal Infections and Hyperglycemia: A Bidirectional Dynamics
  • Time :

Abstract:

A bidirectional dynamics has been observed between hyperglycemia and periodontal infections. Higher rate of activation pathways are induced due to hyperglycemia which is responsible for inflammation thereby leading to macrovascular as well as microvascular complications, along with oxidative stress and apoptosis. A raised level of inflammatory markers such as: IL6, TNF-α and C-reactive protein occurs in the pathological manifestation of hyperglycemic events which in turn prompts acute-phase of inflammation leading to impaired signaling of insulin function and insulin resistance. On the other hand, enhanced systemic inflammation due to periodontal diseases mediated by the release of IL6 and TNF-α happens when associated with hyperglycemia. A paradigm shift in the oral microbiota due to hyperglycemic condition results in an increase in the pathogenicity of associated pathogenic microbes as a consequences an increased inflammation and bone loss in periodontal pathologies occurs. Inflammatory periodontal disease and diabetes show the cyclic relationship between the two. Diabetes predisposes the individual to periodontal infections and also the later exacerbates or worsens the glycemic control in diabetic patients. Routine periodontal examination provides an insight for the early diagnosis of diabetes in undiagnosed patients and may reduce the worsening of metabolic control thereby preventing serious complications. Also the oral health of diabetic patients may be improved and well maintained with proper management of blood glucose levels. Therefore large-scale prospective epidemiological analysis are the only sought after approach to clearly bring in the connectivity between Diabetes and Periodontal disease.

Biography:

K. Swapna Kumari, BDS
Dental surgeon from Utkal University, Odisha in the year 2011. Has been working as faculty in Institute of Dental Sciences, Siksha O Anusandhan Deemed to be University, Bhubaneswar, Odisha, India.
Research Interest: Genomic analysis of oral microbiome in apical periodontitis
Experience during Internship:
i. Oral Surgery : 80 extractions (including Minor Surgical Procedures)
ii. Endodontics : 19 Root canal Treatments and all other types of restorations
iii. Prosthodontics : Complete Denture, Removable partial dentures and Crown preparations
iv. Dental Camps : Self-Organized 3 and attended 6
v. Handling patients in all other Specialized departments of the Institute
Publications:
Presentation of Scientific Papers:
• Kumari S.K. (2008), Maxillary sinus infections, in 26th Orissa state dental conference, organized by Indian Dental Association at Puri, Orissa.
Workshop attended:
• Kumari S.K. (2009), Head and Neck Oncosurgery Workshop, organized by Institute of Dental Sciences, Bhubaneswar, Orissa
• Kumari S.K(2011), Head and Neck Aesthetics & Reconstruction, organized by Institute of Dental Sciences, Bhubaneswar, Orissa

  • Rutgers University, USA
  • Title:Iron Regulated Biogenesis of Extracellular Vesicles in Mycobacterium tuberculosis
  • Time :

Abstract:

Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb), the etiological agent of tuberculosis (TB) in humans, releases extracellular vesicles in vitro and in vivo. Like extracellular vesicles released by Gram-positive bacteria, mycobacterial extracellular vesicles originate at the plasma membrane. Mycobacterial membrane vesicles contain a broad range of immunologically active proteins and glycolipids that can influence host cellular immunity. When added to cells in culture, isolated membrane vesicles can regulate the immune response of uninfected macrophages, T-cells and dendritic cells suggesting a pathogenic role of membrane vesicles in immunomodulation and immune evasion. It has been recognized that vesicle biogenesis in M. tuberculosis is an active and regulated process, but the molecular mechanisms and factors involved remain largely unknown. Iron limitation, a condition encountered in the host, induces the production of membrane vesicles in M. tuberculosis. These vesicles contain the hydrophobic siderophore mycobactin, which can serve as an iron donor and supports replication of iron-starved mycobacteria. Based on these observations we have used a genetic approach to identify the principles governing iron regulated vesicle biogenesis and the molecular determinants of vesiculation in M. tuberculosis, which will be the focus of the presentation.

Biography:

G. Marcela Rodriguez is an Associate Professor in the Public Health Research Institute, Department of Medicine at New Jersey Medical School, Rutgers University in Newark, New Jersey. She received her undergraduate degree from Pontificia Universidad Javeriana in Colombia SA, and a Ph.D from New York University, NY. During her training, Dr. Rodriguez developed a keen interest in infections diseases particularly tuberculosis. As a post-doctoral fellow (1999-2007) in Issar Smith’s lab at The Public Health Research Institute she was awarded a fellowship from the Parker Francis Foundation to study iron metabolism and regulation in M. tuberculosis. Dr. Rodriguez received an award from The Hispanic Center of Excellence at UMDNJ in 2011 and start her independent research program, which has been focused in the metallobiology of M. tuberculosis and its role in pathogenesis.

  • University of Malaya, Malaysia
  • Title:Acanthamoeba triangularis: Amoebicidal Activity of Leea Indica, Major Constituent Gallic acid, Gallic acid Encapsulated in PLGA Nanoparticles
  • Time :

Abstract:

Acanthamoeba, a genus containing at least 24 species of free-living protozoa, is ubiquitous in nature. The successful treatment of Acanthamoeba infections is always very difficult and not constantly effective. More effective drugs must be developed and medicinal plants can play a significant role in the future of drug discovery. Our research focused on the investigation of anti- Acanthamoebic potential of Leea indica and its constituent gallic acid at different concentrations. Water and butanol fractions exhibited significant amoebicidal activity against trophozoites and most resistant cyst stage. Gallic acid revealed 83% inhibition of trophozoites and 69% inhibition of cysts at concentration of 100 µg/mL. Butanol fraction indicated apoptosis in trophozoites via tunnel assay. The cytotoxicity of fractions and gallic acid was investigated against MRC-5 and no adverse effects was observed. Gallic acid was successfully loaded within PLGA nanoparticles with 82.86% encapsulation efficiency while gallic acid showed 98.24% in vitro release after 24 hours. Moreover, gallic acid encapsulated in PLGA nanoparticles exhibited 90% inhibition against trophozoites. In addition, gallic acid encapsulated nanoparticles showed reduced cytotoxicity towards MRC-5 in comparison with gallic acid, which evidenced that polymeric nanoencapsulation could play an important role in drug delivery of natural products.

Biography:

Dr Veeranoot Nissapatorn graduated as a medical doctor (MBBS) from Lady Hardinge Medical College, Delhi University, India and Master of Clinical Tropical Medicine from Mahidol University, Thailand. She was working as a contract tenure as a lecturer and later an Associate Professor at the Department of Parasitology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Malaya, Malaysia for almost two decades (from 1999 to 2017). She is now working as an Associate Professor at the School of Allied Health Sciences, Walailak University, Thailand. Dr Veeranoot is actively involved in her research areas of interest: 1). Infectious parasitic diseases include epidemiology and clinically relevant, 2). Diagnostic challenges, 3). Natural products, 4). Water-based research, and 4). Health awareness of both anthropologic and zoonotic aspects. She is a coordinator of international research networks like Southeast Asia Water Team (SEA Water Team) and World Union for Herbal Drug Discovery (WUHeDD). She has published more than 100 papers including book chapters and is an editorial board member of reputable journals as well as an active reviewer of more than 30 international journals. She also serves as the Editor (Guest, Academic, and Associate), Speaker, Adjunct faculty as well as Visiting. She was the recipient of an outstanding Dr Matthew A. Eichler “Research Fellow Award” from Asia Pacific Consortium for Researchers and Educators (APCORE), Guam, USA, 2018.

 

  • University of Tabuk, Saudi Arabia
  • Title:Smear Microscopy as a Diagnostic Tool of Tuberculosis: Review of Smear Negative Cases, Frequency, Risk Factors, and Prevention Criteria
  • Time :

Abstract:

Tuberculosis is one of the global health problems, the estimated deaths due to TB was around 2 million in the year 2013. Failure in early diagnosis and providing suitable treatment leads to increase the prognosis of the disease. Smear microscopy is used in many countries as a primary diagnosis of TB especially in the district poor facility laboratories, where smear negative frequency is high. This review aimed to reflects the importance of smear negative tuberculosis as a source of infection and poor prognosis of TB treatment and prevention. In addition to, discuss the possible causes and suggests solutions to improve the yields of smear microscopy.

Biography:

Dr. Tarig Mohamed Saad Alnour (M.Sc, Ph.D in Microbiology and Immunology) Assistant professor, Faculty of Applied Medical Sciences – University of Tabuk Assistant professor, Faculty of Medical Laboratory Sciences, AlZaiem AlAzhari University Medical Laboratory consultant – Microbiology and immunology Interested in Tuberculosis research; Drug resistance development; and Immune susceptibility to infectious diseases.

  • State Department of Health, Brazil
  • Title:Public Health Microbiology and Emerging Infectious Diseases
  • Time :

Abstract:

Although most countries in the world offer two doses of measles vírus (MEV) vaccine as a routine part of immunization services, MeV has reemerged on several continents. Low vaccination coverage contributes to this phenomenon, and was the main reason why Brazil, since 2018, has faced its largest measles outbreak in recent decades, with more than 10,351 cases confirmed (until March 2019) and sustained transmission by more than twelve consecutive months, resulting in the loss of measles-free country certification. This outbreak began after intense immigration from Venezuelan refugees, including people infected by MeV, finding a susceptible population in Brazil due to the low rate of immunization. Since then, the Brazilian health services have been working to eliminate the circulation of MeV in the territory. The purpose of this work is to discuss, from the perspective of a regional epidemiological surveillance service, the main challenges to achieve this goal. 1) The occurrence of mass events, planned or spontaneous, such as Carnival, America Soccer Cup, Pro- and anti-government street demonstrations, among others, often gather thousands of people and this agglomeration favors the spread of the virus. 2) Co-circulation of other fever and rash viruses, such as zika, chikungunya, dengue, parvovirus and coxsakie, may confound clinical reasoning in the approach of patients with such symptoms, increasing the need for the propedeutic skills of health professionals. 3) The etiological determination of exanthematic diseases depends, above all, on laboratory tests with good specificity; however, cross-reactions between measles and other viruses have been verified in serological tests used by public health laboratories, and this can impair the speed of transmission control procedures, regardless of the disease. 4) The reporting of suspected measles cases depends on a good integration between epidemiological surveillance and primary care services, but in some territories, this integration is incipient, favoring underreporting. 5) Given the high transmissibility of measles, the achievement of 95% vaccination coverage is, undoubtedly, the most essential action for effective elimination of MeV circulation. In Brazil, the success of the immunization program in the 1980s and 1990s meant that the current generation of parents did not live with measles, which contributed to a low perception of risk and little interest in the vaccine. In addition, the new dynamics of families, in which men and women work outside the home, makes it difficult to search for health services that work during office hours. Meanwhile, anti-vaccine movements and false news spread easily through social networks. The return of measles tested the responsiveness of Brazil’s health system, which is a country with a large territorial extension and numerous regional differences. Investments in health communication, combating fake-news, integration of surveillance services with health care, strengthening the community’s link with primary health care teams, offering permanent education for health professionals, greater flexibility in working hours functioning of the health units, extra-wall immunization actions are the means by which it is believed to make it possible to control the MeV and recover the measles-free country certification as soon as possible.

Biography:

Epidemiological surveillance technician of East Regional Health Service, State Department of Health, Bahia, Brazil.
Master in Community Health, with emphasis in epidemiology, by the Institute of Collective Health of the Federal University of Bahia, Brazil.
Specialist in Public Health, Monitoring and Evaluation, by the Institute of Collective Health of the Federal University of Bahia, Brazil.
Specialist in Management of the National Policy of Food and Nutrition, by the National School of Public Health Sérgio Arouca, Oswaldo Cruz Foundation (FioCRUZ), Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.
Professor of Epidemiology and Surveillance in Health, at the School of Public Health Professor Jorge Novis, Bahia, Brazil.
Recent publication: Carvalho-Sauer, Rita et al. Congenital Zika Syndrome: Prevalence of low birth weight and associated factors. Bahia, 2015-2017. International Journal of Infectious Diseases, Volume 82, 44-50, 2019.

  • Irkutsk State Agrarian University, Russia
  • Title:On the Genetic Variability of the Tick-Borne Encephalitis Virus
  • Time :

Abstract:

The tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV) is transmitted by ixodes ticks and cause severe neuroinfections in human.
The regions endemic for the TBEV are expanding, and the prevalence of tick-borne encephalitis (TBE) is also rising. This disease is notifiable in Russia since 1944. Since September 2012, TBE is notifiable in the European Union.
According to the official classification, TBEV as a species is subdivided into three diversified and epidemiologicaly important subtypes, namely the Far East, the Siberian and the European. These subtypes correspond to three genotypes designated in the same way: (1) the Far East with the prototype strain Sofjin); (2) the Western with the prototype strain Neudoerfl; and (3) Siberian or Ural-Siberian with the prototype strain Vasilchenko.
Several other genetic variants of TBEV have been also found. They include genotypes 4 (represented by the only strain 178-79 from Eastern Siberia) and 5 (a group of strains analogous to the strain 886-84, which have been isolatedin Russia and Mongolia), as well as a recently discovered Himalayan group (two whole-genome isolates). These findings, regardless of what they mean for the epidemiology of TBE, highlight the necessity to reconsider the accepted classification of TBE.
The goal of the present study is to assess the genetic variability of TBEV markers and find genotype-specific markers based on the analysis of the materials available from the international database (GenBank).
Comparison of polypeptide structures of strains and isolates of viral RNA of TBEV from different sources in Europe and Asia allowed us to find genotype-specific combinations of amino acid substitutions.
All nucleotide sequences deposited so far fall into one of the described genetic groups.The natural sources of TBE located in Russia contain the highest genetic diversity of TBE. Five out of six known genetic groups of this virus were found here.
Strains Buzuuchuk from Kyrgyzstan and 178-79 from Russia (Eastern Siberia) possess unique genomic structures.
The Buzuuchuk strain from Kyrgyzstan turned out to be an untypical representative of genotype 3, as it does not follow the differentiation into three subclusters (the Baltic branch and subgenotypes Vasilchenko and Zausaev from the Siberian branch).
The strain 178-79 is the only known representative of the proposed genotype 4. The unusual structure of its genome is probably the combination of loci characteristic for the major TBEV genotypes.

Biography:

In 1987, after graduation from the Irkutsk State University, Tatiana Demina was directed to the laboratory of genosystematics in the Limnological Institute, where she as a research assistant studied the methods of molecular biology and participated in the expeditions on Lake Baikal.
Starting from 1991, she worked as a scientific fellow in the laboratory of viral genetics in the Irkutsk Research Institute of Epidemiology and Microbiology.
In 1999, she defended the Cand. Sci. (PhD) thesis entitled ‘Characteristic of the genetic variability of tick-borne encephalitis virus strains based on homology analysis of regions of the viral genome.’
From 2003 to February 2011, she continued the experimental studies of the TBEV genomes.
In 2013, she defended the D. Sci. dissertation entitled ‘The issues of genotyping and genetic variability of tick-borne encephalitis virus.’
Starting from September 2013, she taught a lecture course entitled ‘Veterinary microbiology’ as a visiting professor at one of the departments of the School of Biotechnology and Veterinary medicine at the Irkutsk State Agrarian Academy. Since 2013, she holds a permanent professor position at one of the departments of the School of Biotechnology and Veterinary medicine at the Irkutsk State Agrarian University.

  • Okayama University, Japan
  • Title:Metabolic Abnormalities in Adult T-cell Leukemia/Lymphoma and Induction of Specific Leukemic Cell Death using Photodynamic Therapy
  • Time :

Abstract:

Adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma (ATL) is an aggressive T-cell neoplasm caused by human T-cell leukemia virus type I (HTLV-I). Therapeutic interventions have not been associated with satisfactory outcomes. We showed that the porphyrin metabolic pathway preferentially accumulates the endogenous photosensitive metabolite, protoporphyrin IX (PpIX) in ATL, after a short-term culture with 5-aminolevulinic acid (ALA). PpIX accumulated 10 to 100 fold more in ATL leukemic cells when compared to healthy peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs). Patient specimens showed dynamic changes in flow cytometry profiles during the onset and progression of ATL. Furthermore, 98.7% of ATL leukemic cell death in the ATL patient specimens could be induced with 10 min of visible light exposure, while 77.5% of normal PBMCs survived. Metabolomics analyses revealed that a specific stage of the metabolic pathway progressively and dynamically deteriorated with HTLV-I infection and at the onset of ATL. Therefore, this method will be useful for diagnosing and identifying high-risk HTLV-I carriers and high-risk indolent ATL who appeared to have developed or were likely to develop the aggressive subtypes with single cell resolutions. Photodynamic therapy in the circulatory system may be a potential treatment due to its highly-specific, non-invasive, safe, simultaneous, and repeatedly-treatable modalities.

Biography:

Takashi Oka received Ph.D., Graduate School of Engineering Science, Dept. of Biophysical Engineering, Osaka University, Japan in 1983 and DMSc (Doctor of Medical Science), Kochi Medical School, Japan in 1992. He was appointed Assistant professor, Department of Pathology, Kochi Medical School in 1983 and Visiting Scientist, Department of Tumor Virology, Research Institute for Microbial Diseases, Osaka University (1983-1984). He researched in Department of Molecular Pathology, M.D. Anderson Cancer Center, The University of Texas, USA as a Visiting Assistant Professor (1992-1994) and became Visiting Scientist, Department of Cancer Biology, Harvard AIDS Institute, Harvard University, Boston, MA, USA (1994-1996). Then, he was appointed Assistant Professor, Department of Pathology, Okayama University Medical School 1996 and was promoted to Lecturer, Department of Pathology and Oncology, Okayama University from 2015.and Lecturer, Department of Hematology, Oncology and Respiratory Medicine Graduate School of Medicine, Dentistry and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Okayama University from 2019.

  • Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology, Ghana
  • Title:Mycobacterium Ulcerans Disease in the Middle Belt of Ghana: An Eight- Year Review from Six Endemic Districts
  • Time :

Abstract:

Background
Mycobacterium ulcerans (MU) produces mycolactone toxin when infected with a plasmid. Toxin is cytotoxic and immunosuppressive, causing extensive destruction of tissue, leading to large ulcers on exposed parts of the body. Spontaneous healing by secondary intention leads to contractures, subluxation of joints, disuse atrophy or distal lymphedema.
The disease is endemic in some communities within the middle belt of Ghana.
Objective
To document the clinical and epidemiological features of MU disease in the middle belt of Ghana and the outcome of treatment.
Patients and Methods
Patients with lesions suspected to be MU disease were screened by community workers. Lesions were confirmed by any of direct smear examination, culture, polymerase chain reaction (PCR) or histopathology. The patients were treated with rifampicin (10mg/kg orally) and streptomycin (15mg/kg im) combination for eight weeks. Patients selected for surgical treatment included cases where medical treatment had failed, cases where medical treatment is contraindicated, cases presenting late with complications and recurrent cases.
Results
258 patients were seen in Ahafo Ano, Amansie Central, Amansie West, Asunafo, Asutifi and Upper Denkyira districts of Ghana between 2005 and 2012. Their ages ranged from one year three months to 98 years with mean age of 29.8 (SD 20.4)
Clinical forms of MU disease seen were: papule (0.5%), nodule (1.5%), chronic osteomyelitis (1.5%), contracture (1.5%), edematous lesion (3%) and ulcer (92%).
Uncommon complications included subluxation of knee joint, salivary gland fistula, and Marjolin’s ulcer
MU lesions were distributed as follows: head and neck (6.8%), upper limb (20.3%), trunk (1.7%), and lower limb (91.2%)
Conclusion
MU disease in the middle belt of Ghana can be controlled by early case detection and adequate curative treatment

Biography:

Emmanuel J.K. Adu is a senior lecturer in the Department of Surgery of the School of Medical Sciences, Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology, Kumasi, Ghana. He is a Consultant Plastic and Reconstructive Surgeon at Komfo Anokye Teaching Hospital in Kumasi. He obtained his BSc (Human Biology) and MB ChB from the School of Medical Sciences (1984), and his Fellowship of the West African College of Surgeons in Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery from the University of Ghana Medical School in 2002. He was elected a Foundation Fellow of the Ghana College of Physicians and Surgeons in the faculty of surgery in 2005.

His areas of expertise include: management of soft tissue injuries; congenital anomalies of the limbs, head and neck, including polydactyly, syndactyly, macrodactyly, constriction rings, cleft lip and palate; soft tissue infections like Buruli ulcer and cancrum oris; skin cancers, especially basal cell carcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma and malignant melanoma

He is the vice-president of the Ghana Burn Association (2006); patron of Ghana Burn Survivors Foundation(2008); visiting lecturer in surgery (plastic and reconstructive) to the School of Medicine and Health Sciences, University for Development Studies, Tamale, Ghana.
He is an examiner in Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery for the West African College of Surgeons (since 2013); he is a reviewer for several local and international medical journals including Ghana Medical Journal, Nigerian Journal of Plastic Surgery, and International Journal of Mycobacteriology. He has spoken at several local and international conferences.
He has 17 publications to his credit in areas pertaining to his specialty.

  • Kimron Veterinary Institute, Israel
  • Title:The Roles of Globalization, the Lack of Appropriate Control of Biological Industries and Climate Change in the Spread of Viral Infections: An Experience of an Israeli Vegeterian 
  • Time :

Abstract:

The spread of infectious diseases due to globalization and climate change has become one of the serious ongoing problems all over the world. Modern transportation facilitates fast movement of infected people and animals, as well as contaminated agricultural and biological products to new areas with naïve populations causing serious outbreaks and heavy consequences. An additional way of rapid spread of infections is through the increasing number of blood sucking insects in densely populated areas and the close contact between natural habitats and urban areas. These environmental changes have driven the adaptation of exotic pathogens to urban conditions, as happened, for example, with Dengue and Ebola viruses. The increasing number of immunocompromised individuals (including patients undergoing organ transplantation, anti-cancer therapy or suffering from AIDS) ease the adaptation of some animal’ infections to humans. Moreover, climate change allows blood sucking insects to spread to new areas and transmit infections to host animals as well as to local blood sucking insects, which become additional vectors for transmission of viral diseases.
In addition to clinical disease in naïve hosts, some viral infections also lead to abortions and malformations in fetuses. The most known viruses capable of inducing malformations in humans are Rubella and recently Zika viruses. In case of livestock animals congenital diseases have severe economic impact on the industry due to the dramatic decrease in number of healthy offspring. Death of the fetuses, abortions, stillbirths and malformations, as well as complications in parturition (often followed by culling of injured mothers and congenitally malformed newborn animals), and high proportion of death among young animals all heavily affect the agricultural industry.
Members of several families of viruses are capable of affecting fetuses and, consequently, newborn animals. These include foot and mouth disease, encephalomyocarditis virus and others belonging to the Picornaviridae family and viruses belonging to the order Herpesvirales, mostly viruses from the Alfaherpervirinae subfamily. Dengue and Zika viruses in humans and pestiviruses in animals are the main abortogenic/teratogenic viruses of the Flaviviridae family. However, the most known virus causing abortion storms in many mammals and humans is Rift Valley fever virus belonging to the order Bunyavirales. Viruses belonging to the Simbu serogroup, genus Othobunyavirus, of the Peribunyaviridae family are the main reason of abortions and malformations in domestic ruminants. Additionally, members of Reoviridae family (mainly belonging to the genus Orbivirus including bluetongue and epizootic hemorrhagic disease viruses) may also cause pregnant abnormalities in ruminants and members of Paramyxovidae, Arteriviridae, Circoviridae and, Parvoviridae are also involved in cases of malformation and abortions in human and animals.
Almost three hundred aborted fetuses and newborn dead domestic and wild ruminants were tested for presence of viral RNA and DNA in the Kimron Veterinary institute, Israel, during routine investigation of aborted fetuses from March 2018 till March 2019 (13- month period). It was found that 10-30% of fetuses were positive in real-time polymerase chain reaction for viruses belonging to the Simbu serogroup. A less dramatic situation was observed with bluetongue viruses and pestiviruses, where viral RNA was detected in 1-4% of aborted fetuses or newborn dead animals. Infectious rhinotracheitis virus (herpesvirus) was found in approximately 1% of tested cattle aborted fetuses. Notably, most serotypes of bluetongue viruses and species of Simbu serogroup viruses which were recently identified in Israel, probably originated from Africa.
During the last two decades many types of viral disease were reported in areas, where such viruses were previously exotic. Strict control for food and biological industry products can prevent the spread of many infections among people and animals

Biography:

Natalia Golender graduated with honors the Veterinary faculty of Samarkand Agricultural Institute, Uzbekistan in 2002. She was working as a veterinarian in the division of poultry and fish diseases, Kimron Veterinary Institute, Israel during 2004-2010, mostly on diagnosis and study of avian influenza viruses. Since 2010 she is working in division of virology at the Kimron Veterinary Institute in diagnosis, as well as in experimental, clinical, genetic and epidemiologic investigation of several arboviral infections affecting ruminants.

  • University of Ljubljana, Slovenia
  • Title:The Complete Genome of Lumpy Skin Disease Virus Bujanova/2016 Detected in Serbia
  • Time :

Abstract:

Historically the lumpy skin disease (LSD) was restricted to Africa, but in 2015 was entered for the first time into Balkan region and spreading into several countries, causing serious challenge regarding implementation of successful control of disease and emergence of vaccination. LSD is economically important infectious disease of cattle, caused by LSD virus, genus Capripoxvirus, family Poxviridae. The first case of LSD in Serbia was laboratory confirmed in June 2016 in Municipality of Bujanovac (South part of Serbia). Virus was isolated in MDBK cells and complete genome of LSD virus was determined from the isolate SRB/Bujanovac/2016 by next generation sequencing, using Ion Torrent technology. The sequence of LSD virus SRB/Bujanovac/2016 (KY702007) consists of 150.661 nucleotides and has 99,95% nucleotide identity with virulent South African LSD virus Neethling Warmbaths LW strain (AF409137), isolated in 1999 from severely infected calf. The nucleotide sequence SRB/Bujanovac/2016 is 100% identical with partial gene sequences of G-protein coupled chemokine receptor (GPCR), available for LSD virus strains detected in Turkey and Greece during 2014 and 2015, confirming high nucleotide identity with strains from previously reported outbreaks in neighboring area. The determined virus contains 156 open reading frames (ORFs). The individual nucleotide changes were randomly distributed through whole viral genome. This was the first complete LSD virus genome determined in Serbia and also in Balkan area.

Biography:

Ivan Toplak is an associate professor on Veterinary faculty, University of Ljubljana. His field of interest in research work are epidemiology of especially dangerous diseases and molecular diagnostics of viral diseases. His main research and professional work is in the field of pestiviruses (bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV), classical swine fever (CSF) virus, Border disease virus), Aujeszky’s disease virus, African swine fever virus, porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS) virus, swine vesicular disease virus, porcine circovirus type 2, rabies virus, hepatitis E virus (HEV), diagnostics of bee viruses (ABPV, BQCV, CBPV, DWV, SBV), porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV), Schmallenberg virus, coronaviruses, respiratory viruses in cattle and others.

  • Agrocampus Ouest-INRA, France
  • Title:Overview of the Microbial Spoilage of French Custard Cream Desserts
  • Time :

Abstract:

With the increase in the consumption of dairy desserts and the need for a better control of food wastes, food spoilage has become of main concern for the dairy industry. It then appears essential to better understand and control this issue, which have been poorly investigated so far. Amongst the dairy desserts, we have focused our research on the famous French dessert “île flottante”, particularly sensitive to spoilage. This food consists of a sweet egg white foam floating on a vanilla custard cream, which contains highly nutritive raw materials, including milk, sugar and egg. We have shown that the bacterial spoilers are mainly Gram-positive bacteria belonging to the Bacillus cereus group, and the Staphylococcus and Enterococcus genera. Further experiments were designed for better understanding of the bacterial metabolic activities involved in custard cream spoilage events. Lactic acid appeared as a relevant marker for an “objective” detection of spoilage and the volatilome as a fingerprint for the assignment of a type of spoilage to a specific bacterium. These markers could be of interest for the development of new diagnostic tools for the dairy or egg product industry where objective criteria are lacking for the detection and control of spoilage issues.

Biography:

Dr. Clarisse Techer is born in 1983. She obtains a Msc degree in Microbiology at the Rennes 1 University (Fr) in 2009. In 2010, she works on the establishment of sensitive and specific immunological methods for the detection of staphylococcal enterotoxins in dairy products. In 2012, she joins the Animal nutrition and processing domain of the Avril group (Fr) and undertakes a PhD research in the joint research unit “Science and Technology of Milk and Egg” between Agrocampus Ouest and the French National Institute for Agricultural Research (INRA). Her PhD work concerned the control of spoiling bacteria in refrigerated food composed of egg products. Since 2015, she works in the Department of Research, Innovation and Development (RID) of Mixscience (Avril group) in Rennes (Fr) as researcher in microbiology and then as RID manager. Her main current research interests include animal gut health management, search for alternative solutions to the use of antibiotics in animal feed, mycotoxin risk management and quality of finished products such as egg products. She is also supervising MSc and PhD students.

  • University of London, UK
  • Title:BVDV Infection Disrupts Maternal Pregnancy Recognition in Cows
  • Time :

Abstract:

Poor reproductive performance causes economic loss to the dairy industry. Early embryonic mortality is a major component and is at least in part caused by failure of pregnancy recognition (PR). In the cows, PR is initiated by interferon tau (IFNT) released from trophoectoderm of the conceptus acting on the uterine endometrium to 1) inhibit luteolysis via preventing the pulsatile release of prostaglandin (PG) F2α and switching the PG production to PGE2 and 2) stimulate expression of type I interferon stimulated genes (ISGs). This creates a receptive environment for implantation. There is strong evidence to suggest that bovine viral diarrhoea viral (BVDV) is one of the potential causes of PR failure. We hypothesized that BVDV infection disrupts PR via altering PG and ISG signalling pathways in the uterus. We established an in vitro PR model in which bovine uterine endometrial cells from healthy cyclic cows were cultured and treated with 0 or 100 ng/ml IFNT for 24 hours in the presence or absence of non-cytopathic (ncp) BVDV infection. We investigated activation of the pathways involved in maternal PR. The results showed that the effect of BVDV alone on the pathways tested were moderate while it significantly inhibited the pathways activated by IFNT. In the oxytocin-PG signalling pathway, IFNT challenge significantly stimulated PTGS1 and PTGER3 expression and PGE2 production whereas these stimulatory effects were neutralised in the presence of ncpBVDV infection. Both IFNT and BVDV did not significantly affect expression of PGR, OXTR and ESR1 mRNA. In the uterine ISG signalling pathway, IFNT treatment alone significantly increased expression of all 17 ISGs tested. In contrast to the limited effect of ncpBVDV alone, the virus significantly inhibited IFNT-stimulated expression of 15 ISGs (ISG15, HERC5, USP18, DDX58, IFIH1, IFIT1, IFIT3, BST2, MX1, MX2, RSAD2, OAS1Y, SAMD9, GBP4 and PLAC8). For the upstream ISG regulatory pathway – interferon regulatory factors and signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT) 1 and 2, IFNT significantly stimulated the expression of STAT1, STAT2, IRF9, IRF7 and TYK2 mRNA, however, in the presence of ncpBVDV infection, the IFNT induced expression of STAT1, STAT2, IRF9 and TYK2 was significantly suppressed. We tested ISG15 and STAT2 proteins and their IFNT-stimulation and BVDV-inhibition patterns were consistent with their genes. This suggests that ncpBVDV infection inhibits activation of the pathways required by successful PR, which may lead to PR failure and embryonic mortality.

Biography:

Dr Zhangrui Cheng received his BSc and MSc in veterinary medicine in Hunan Agricultural University and Beijing Agricultural Universities, respectively, and PhD in veterinary pharmacology and therapeutics in Glasgow University, UK. He joined Royal Veterinary College (RVC), University of London as a postdoctoral research assistant in 1997. He is now a research fellow employed on permanent basis in RVC. His research interests include reproductive physiology and infection, bioinformatics and antimicrobial pharmacology. He has published over 80 papers in the peer-reviewed journals, including 8 recent publications about effect of BVDV infection on reproductive function.

X