The lifestyle transition in a bacteria from environment to opportunist results in either the loss or/and acquisition of specific genes. Such changeovers in turn will help them adapted to inhabit and sustain at the starting point for interactions with new hosts.
We have come across one such MDR Chryseobacterium gallinarum from OPD of a tertiary care hospital of India from a 20 years old female urine sample. WGS analysis of the bacteria shared >99% identity with one keratin degrading non-pathogenic C. gallinarum, reported from a pharyngeal scrape of a seemingly healthy chicken from the state of Saxony-Anhalt, Germany. The multi-drug resistant phenotypic profiling of the strain differed from the respective genomic information and found harboring two novel β-lactamases; an ambler class blaIND-17 and a serine blaCIA-5. Sensitivity to vancomycin by the isolate, the uncommon event of any gram negative bacteria further added to our curiosity which could be due to complete loss of LPS in C. gallinarum conferring polymyxin resistance. The discovery of mutated lpxD gene from genome analysis presents additional evidence in support, though needs further validation. Fluorescent Microscopic-Hela Cell invasion assay showed the infection ability of the isolate, a primary episode towards evolutionary transition from environmental to pathogenic.
So far our knowledge goes, this is the first report of the evolution of Chryseobacterium gallinarum from an environmental to a pathogenic multidrug-resistant bacterium harbouring co-resistance to antibiotics of last resort carbapenems and colistin.


Enketeswara Subudhi Alumni of Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur, Now Professor, Center for Biotechnology, Siksha ‘O’ Anusandhan (Deemed to be) University, Bhubaneswar, India Since 2006, Before that Senior Lecturer at Amity Institute of Biotechnology, Amity University, New Delhi, Since 2004. Biotech Industry: Earlier to 2004, Product Development officer, International Panacea Ltd., New Delhi and Scientist, Quality Control, Jain Foods (100% E.O.U), Jain Groups of Company, Jalgaon
Present Area of Research: Understanding molecular mechanisms behind MDR in Bacteria, Metagenomics, Metatranscriptomics of microbiome of thermophilic ponds, Microbial community study of oral cavity, Repurposing of FDA approved drugs against resistant bacteria
Total Citations: 810, h-index: 14, i10-index: 20 RGscore: 29.65
Publication: Total (137), International Journals: 75, Seminars: 50, Book Chapters: 12, Springer Book: 1,
Journal Editor: International Res. J. of Ind. and Env. Biotech., ISSN IS: 2581-7906
Editorial board Member: Journal Pure and Applied Microbiology
Editing & Reviewing for Esteemed journals: Scientific Reports, PLoS One, Gene; Science of the Total Environment; BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine; Infection and Drug Resistance, Microbial Ecology; Microbial Pathogenesis; 3 Biotech; Infectious Diseases and Public Health; Microbial Drug Resistance; Plant Physiology and Biochemistry; Process Biochemistry;
Extra Mural funded Project: Total: Rs 2.7 crores, Patent: 1
Mentoring PDFs: 2(1-DST young scientists, 1-DST Research Associate), SRF: 2 (ICMR)
Ph. D Guide: 12, Awarded: 5, To be Awarded: 7
Foreign Country Visited: Presented paper at International Biotech Symposium, China IBS-2008.
Research Collaboration:
1. University of Madison, Wisconsin, USA: Potential of ginger terpenoids in prevention of cancer cell proliferation
2. Technology Futures Institute, Teesside University, Middlesbrough, UK: Enzyme production through Solid waste fermentation
Awards & Distinctions:
• Post-Doctoral Fellowship: SERC Visiting Fellowship (2012) by DST, New Delhi.
• Biopesticide Expert to Government of Orissa (2004)
Transfer of Biotechnology to Community: Capacity building through training rural community on “Value addition to agricultural produce through Biotechnological intervention”.