Acanthamoeba, a genus containing at least 24 species of free-living protozoa, is ubiquitous in nature. The successful treatment of Acanthamoeba infections is always very difficult and not constantly effective. More effective drugs must be developed and medicinal plants can play a significant role in the future of drug discovery. Our research focused on the investigation of anti- Acanthamoebic potential of Leea indica and its constituent gallic acid at different concentrations. Water and butanol fractions exhibited significant amoebicidal activity against trophozoites and most resistant cyst stage. Gallic acid revealed 83% inhibition of trophozoites and 69% inhibition of cysts at concentration of 100 µg/mL. Butanol fraction indicated apoptosis in trophozoites via tunnel assay. The cytotoxicity of fractions and gallic acid was investigated against MRC-5 and no adverse effects was observed. Gallic acid was successfully loaded within PLGA nanoparticles with 82.86% encapsulation efficiency while gallic acid showed 98.24% in vitro release after 24 hours. Moreover, gallic acid encapsulated in PLGA nanoparticles exhibited 90% inhibition against trophozoites. In addition, gallic acid encapsulated nanoparticles showed reduced cytotoxicity towards MRC-5 in comparison with gallic acid, which evidenced that polymeric nanoencapsulation could play an important role in drug delivery of natural products.


Dr Veeranoot Nissapatorn graduated as a medical doctor (MBBS) from Lady Hardinge Medical College, Delhi University, India and Master of Clinical Tropical Medicine from Mahidol University, Thailand. She was working as a contract tenure as a lecturer and later an Associate Professor at the Department of Parasitology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Malaya, Malaysia for almost two decades (from 1999 to 2017). She is now working as an Associate Professor at the School of Allied Health Sciences, Walailak University, Thailand. Dr Veeranoot is actively involved in her research areas of interest: 1). Infectious parasitic diseases include epidemiology and clinically relevant, 2). Diagnostic challenges, 3). Natural products, 4). Water-based research, and 4). Health awareness of both anthropologic and zoonotic aspects. She is a coordinator of international research networks like Southeast Asia Water Team (SEA Water Team) and World Union for Herbal Drug Discovery (WUHeDD). She has published more than 100 papers including book chapters and is an editorial board member of reputable journals as well as an active reviewer of more than 30 international journals. She also serves as the Editor (Guest, Academic, and Associate), Speaker, Adjunct faculty as well as Visiting. She was the recipient of an outstanding Dr Matthew A. Eichler “Research Fellow Award” from Asia Pacific Consortium for Researchers and Educators (APCORE), Guam, USA, 2018.