• French National Institute for Agricultural Research (INRA), France
  • Title:Overview of the Microbial Spoilage of French Custard Cream Desserts
  • Time :

Abstract:

With the increase in the consumption of dairy desserts and the need for a better control of food wastes, food spoilage has become of main concern for the dairy industry. It then appears essential to better understand and control this issue, which have been poorly investigated so far. Amongst the dairy desserts, we have focused our research on the famous French dessert “île flottante”, particularly sensitive to spoilage. This food consists of a sweet egg white foam floating on a vanilla custard cream, which contains highly nutritive raw materials, including milk, sugar and egg. We have shown that the bacterial spoilers are mainly Gram-positive bacteria belonging to the Bacillus cereus group, and the Staphylococcus and Enterococcus genera. Further experiments were designed for better understanding of the bacterial metabolic activities involved in custard cream spoilage events. Lactic acid appeared as a relevant marker for an “objective” detection of spoilage and the volatilome as a fingerprint for the assignment of a type of spoilage to a specific bacterium. These markers could be of interest for the development of new diagnostic tools for the dairy or egg product industry where objective criteria are lacking for the detection and control of spoilage issues.

Biography:

Dr. Clarisse Techer is born in 1983. She obtains a Msc degree in Microbiology at the Rennes 1 University (Fr) in 2009. In 2010, she works on the establishment of sensitive and specific immunological methods for the detection of staphylococcal enterotoxins in dairy products. In 2012, she joins the Animal nutrition and processing domain of the Avril group (Fr) and undertakes a PhD research in the joint research unit “Science and Technology of Milk and Egg” between Agrocampus Ouest and the French National Institute for Agricultural Research (INRA). Her PhD work concerned the control of spoiling bacteria in refrigerated food composed of egg products. Since 2015, she works in the Department of Research, Innovation and Development (RID) of Mixscience (Avril group) in Rennes (Fr) as researcher in microbiology and then as RID manager. Her main current research interests include animal gut health management, search for alternative solutions to the use of antibiotics in animal feed, mycotoxin risk management and quality of finished products such as egg products. She is also supervising MSc and PhD students.

  • Kimron Veterinary Institute, Israel
  • Title:The Roles of Globalization, the Lack of Appropriate Control of Biological Industries and Climate Change in the Spread of Viral Infections: An Experience of an Israeli Vegeterian 
  • Time :

Abstract:

The spread of infectious diseases due to globalization and climate change has become one of the serious ongoing problems all over the world. Modern transportation facilitates fast movement of infected people and animals, as well as contaminated agricultural and biological products to new areas with naïve populations causing serious outbreaks and heavy consequences. An additional way of rapid spread of infections is through the increasing number of blood sucking insects in densely populated areas and the close contact between natural habitats and urban areas. These environmental changes have driven the adaptation of exotic pathogens to urban conditions, as happened, for example, with Dengue and Ebola viruses. The increasing number of immunocompromised individuals (including patients undergoing organ transplantation, anti-cancer therapy or suffering from AIDS) ease the adaptation of some animal’ infections to humans. Moreover, climate change allows blood sucking insects to spread to new areas and transmit infections to host animals as well as to local blood sucking insects, which become additional vectors for transmission of viral diseases.
In addition to clinical disease in naïve hosts, some viral infections also lead to abortions and malformations in fetuses. The most known viruses capable of inducing malformations in humans are Rubella and recently Zika viruses. In case of livestock animals congenital diseases have severe economic impact on the industry due to the dramatic decrease in number of healthy offspring. Death of the fetuses, abortions, stillbirths and malformations, as well as complications in parturition (often followed by culling of injured mothers and congenitally malformed newborn animals), and high proportion of death among young animals all heavily affect the agricultural industry.
Members of several families of viruses are capable of affecting fetuses and, consequently, newborn animals. These include foot and mouth disease, encephalomyocarditis virus and others belonging to the Picornaviridae family and viruses belonging to the order Herpesvirales, mostly viruses from the Alfaherpervirinae subfamily. Dengue and Zika viruses in humans and pestiviruses in animals are the main abortogenic/teratogenic viruses of the Flaviviridae family. However, the most known virus causing abortion storms in many mammals and humans is Rift Valley fever virus belonging to the order Bunyavirales. Viruses belonging to the Simbu serogroup, genus Othobunyavirus, of the Peribunyaviridae family are the main reason of abortions and malformations in domestic ruminants. Additionally, members of Reoviridae family (mainly belonging to the genus Orbivirus including bluetongue and epizootic hemorrhagic disease viruses) may also cause pregnant abnormalities in ruminants and members of Paramyxovidae, Arteriviridae, Circoviridae and, Parvoviridae are also involved in cases of malformation and abortions in human and animals.
Almost three hundred aborted fetuses and newborn dead domestic and wild ruminants were tested for presence of viral RNA and DNA in the Kimron Veterinary institute, Israel, during routine investigation of aborted fetuses from March 2018 till March 2019 (13- month period). It was found that 10-30% of fetuses were positive in real-time polymerase chain reaction for viruses belonging to the Simbu serogroup. A less dramatic situation was observed with bluetongue viruses and pestiviruses, where viral RNA was detected in 1-4% of aborted fetuses or newborn dead animals. Infectious rhinotracheitis virus (herpesvirus) was found in approximately 1% of tested cattle aborted fetuses. Notably, most serotypes of bluetongue viruses and species of Simbu serogroup viruses which were recently identified in Israel, probably originated from Africa.
During the last two decades many types of viral disease were reported in areas, where such viruses were previously exotic. Strict control for food and biological industry products can prevent the spread of many infections among people and animals

Biography:

Dr.Natalia Golender graduated with honors the Veterinary faculty of Samarkand Agricultural Institute, Uzbekistan in 2002. She was working as a veterinarian in the division of poultry and fish diseases, Kimron Veterinary Institute, Israel during 2004-2010, mostly on diagnosis and study of avian influenza viruses. Since 2010 she is working in division of virology at the Kimron Veterinary Institute in diagnosis, as well as in experimental, clinical, genetic and epidemiologic investigation of several arboviral infections affecting ruminants.

  • Okayama University, Japan
  • Title:Progressive Metabolic Abnormalities During Onset of Adult T-Cell Leukemia/Lymphoma and Induction of Specific Leukemic Cell Death Using Photodynamic Therapy
  • Time :

Abstract:

Adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma (ATL) is an aggressive T-cell neoplasm caused by human T-cell leukemia virus type I (HTLV-I). Therapeutic interventions have not been associated with satisfactory outcomes. We showed that the porphyrin metabolic pathway preferentially accumulates the endogenous photosensitive metabolite, protoporphyrin IX (PpIX) in ATL, after a short-term culture with 5-aminolevulinic acid (ALA). PpIX accumulated 10 to 100 fold more in ATL leukemic cells when compared to healthy peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs). Patient specimens showed dynamic changes in flow cytometry profiles during the onset and progression of ATL. Furthermore, 98.7% of ATL leukemic cell death in the ATL patient specimens could be induced with 10 min of visible light exposure, while 77.5% of normal PBMCs survived. Metabolomics analyses revealed that a specific stage of the metabolic pathway progressively and dynamically deteriorated with HTLV-I infection and at the onset of ATL. Therefore, this method will be useful for diagnosing and identifying high-risk HTLV-I carriers and high-risk indolent ATL who appeared to have developed or were likely to develop the aggressive subtypes with single cell resolutions. Photodynamic therapy in the circulatory system may be a potential treatment due to its highly-specific, non-invasive, safe, simultaneous, and repeatedly-treatable modalities.

Biography:

Dr.Takashi Oka received Ph.D., Graduate School of Engineering Science, Dept. of Biophysical Engineering, Osaka University, Japan in 1983 and DMSc (Doctor of Medical Science), Kochi Medical School, Japan in 1992. He was appointed Assistant professor, Department of Pathology, Kochi Medical School in 1983 and Visiting Scientist, Department of Tumor Virology, Research Institute for Microbial Diseases, Osaka University (1983-1984). He researched in Department of Molecular Pathology, M.D. Anderson Cancer Center, The University of Texas, USA as a Visiting Assistant Professor (1992-1994) and became Visiting Scientist, Department of Cancer Biology, Harvard AIDS Institute, Harvard University, Boston, MA, USA (1994-1996). Then, he was appointed Assistant Professor, Department of Pathology, Okayama University Medical School 1996 and was promoted to Lecturer, Department of Pathology and Oncology, Okayama University from 2015.and Lecturer, Department of Hematology, Oncology and Respiratory Medicine Graduate School of Medicine, Dentistry and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Okayama University from 2019.

  • Irkutsk State Agrarian University, Russia
  • Title:On the Genetic Variability of the Tick-Borne Encephalitis Virus
  • Time :

Abstract:

The tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV) is transmitted by ixodes ticks and cause severe neuroinfections in human.
The regions endemic for the TBEV are expanding, and the prevalence of tick-borne encephalitis (TBE) is also rising. This disease is notifiable in Russia since 1944. Since September 2012, TBE is notifiable in the European Union.
According to the official classification, TBEV as a species is subdivided into three diversified and epidemiologicaly important subtypes, namely the Far East, the Siberian and the European. These subtypes correspond to three genotypes designated in the same way: (1) the Far East with the prototype strain Sofjin); (2) the Western with the prototype strain Neudoerfl; and (3) Siberian or Ural-Siberian with the prototype strain Vasilchenko.
Several other genetic variants of TBEV have been also found. They include genotypes 4 (represented by the only strain 178-79 from Eastern Siberia) and 5 (a group of strains analogous to the strain 886-84, which have been isolatedin Russia and Mongolia), as well as a recently discovered Himalayan group (two whole-genome isolates). These findings, regardless of what they mean for the epidemiology of TBE, highlight the necessity to reconsider the accepted classification of TBE.
The goal of the present study is to assess the genetic variability of TBEV markers and find genotype-specific markers based on the analysis of the materials available from the international database (GenBank).
Comparison of polypeptide structures of strains and isolates of viral RNA of TBEV from different sources in Europe and Asia allowed us to find genotype-specific combinations of amino acid substitutions.
All nucleotide sequences deposited so far fall into one of the described genetic groups.The natural sources of TBE located in Russia contain the highest genetic diversity of TBE. Five out of six known genetic groups of this virus were found here.
Strains Buzuuchuk from Kyrgyzstan and 178-79 from Russia (Eastern Siberia) possess unique genomic structures.
The Buzuuchuk strain from Kyrgyzstan turned out to be an untypical representative of genotype 3, as it does not follow the differentiation into three subclusters (the Baltic branch and subgenotypes Vasilchenko and Zausaev from the Siberian branch).
The strain 178-79 is the only known representative of the proposed genotype 4. The unusual structure of its genome is probably the combination of loci characteristic for the major TBEV genotypes.

Biography:

Dr.Tatiana Demina ,in 1987, after graduation from the Irkutsk State University, Tatiana Demina was directed to the laboratory of genosystematics in the Limnological Institute, where she as a research assistant studied the methods of molecular biology and participated in the expeditions on Lake Baikal.
Starting from 1991, she worked as a scientific fellow in the laboratory of viral genetics in the Irkutsk Research Institute of Epidemiology and Microbiology.
In 1999, she defended the Cand. Sci. (PhD) thesis entitled ‘Characteristic of the genetic variability of tick-borne encephalitis virus strains based on homology analysis of regions of the viral genome.’
From 2003 to February 2011, she continued the experimental studies of the TBEV genomes.
In 2013, she defended the D. Sci. dissertation entitled ‘The issues of genotyping and genetic variability of tick-borne encephalitis virus.’
Starting from September 2013, she taught a lecture course entitled ‘Veterinary microbiology’ as a visiting professor at one of the departments of the School of Biotechnology and Veterinary medicine at the Irkutsk State Agrarian Academy. Since 2013, she holds a permanent professor position at one of the departments of the School of Biotechnology and Veterinary medicine at the Irkutsk State Agrarian University.

  • University of Tabuk, Saudi Arabia
  • Title:Smear Microscopy as a Diagnostic Tool of Tuberculosis: Review of Smear Negative Cases, Frequency, Risk Factors, and Prevention Criteria
  • Time :

Abstract:

Tuberculosis is one of the global health problems, the estimated deaths due to TB was around 2 million in the year 2013. Failure in early diagnosis and providing suitable treatment leads to increase the prognosis of the disease. Smear microscopy is used in many countries as a primary diagnosis of TB especially in the district poor facility laboratories, where smear negative frequency is high. This review aimed to reflects the importance of smear negative tuberculosis as a source of infection and poor prognosis of TB treatment and prevention. In addition to, discuss the possible causes and suggests solutions to improve the yields of smear microscopy.

Biography:

Dr.Tarig Mohamed Saad Alnour (M.Sc, Ph.D in Microbiology and Immunology) Assistant professor, Faculty of Applied Medical Sciences – University of Tabuk Assistant professor, Faculty of Medical Laboratory Sciences, AlZaiem AlAzhari University Medical Laboratory consultant – Microbiology and immunology Interested in Tuberculosis research; Drug resistance development; and Immune susceptibility to infectious diseases.

  • Walailak University, Thailand
  • Title:Acanthamoeba triangularis: Amoebicidal Activity of Leea Indica, Major Constituent Gallic acid, Gallic acid Encapsulated in PLGA Nanoparticles
  • Time :

Abstract:

Acanthamoeba, a genus containing at least 24 species of free-living protozoa, is ubiquitous in nature. The successful treatment of Acanthamoeba infections is always very difficult and not constantly effective. More effective drugs must be developed and medicinal plants can play a significant role in the future of drug discovery. Our research focused on the investigation of anti- Acanthamoebic potential of Leea indica and its constituent gallic acid at different concentrations. Water and butanol fractions exhibited significant amoebicidal activity against trophozoites and most resistant cyst stage. Gallic acid revealed 83% inhibition of trophozoites and 69% inhibition of cysts at concentration of 100 µg/mL. Butanol fraction indicated apoptosis in trophozoites via tunnel assay. The cytotoxicity of fractions and gallic acid was investigated against MRC-5 and no adverse effects was observed. Gallic acid was successfully loaded within PLGA nanoparticles with 82.86% encapsulation efficiency while gallic acid showed 98.24% in vitro release after 24 hours. Moreover, gallic acid encapsulated in PLGA nanoparticles exhibited 90% inhibition against trophozoites. In addition, gallic acid encapsulated nanoparticles showed reduced cytotoxicity towards MRC-5 in comparison with gallic acid, which evidenced that polymeric nanoencapsulation could play an important role in drug delivery of natural products.

Biography:

Dr.Veeranoot Nissapatorn graduated as a medical doctor (MBBS) from Lady Hardinge Medical College, Delhi University, India and Master of Clinical Tropical Medicine from Mahidol University, Thailand. She was working as a contract tenure as a lecturer and later an Associate Professor at the Department of Parasitology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Malaya, Malaysia for almost two decades (from 1999 to 2017). She is now working as an Associate Professor at the School of Allied Health Sciences, Walailak University, Thailand. Dr Veeranoot is actively involved in her research areas of interest: 1). Infectious parasitic diseases include epidemiology and clinically relevant, 2). Diagnostic challenges, 3). Natural products, 4). Water-based research, and 4). Health awareness of both anthropologic and zoonotic aspects. She is a coordinator of international research networks like Southeast Asia Water Team (SEA Water Team) and World Union for Herbal Drug Discovery (WUHeDD). She has published more than 100 papers including book chapters and is an editorial board member of reputable journals as well as an active reviewer of more than 30 international journals. She also serves as the Editor (Guest, Academic, and Associate), Speaker, Adjunct faculty as well as Visiting. She was the recipient of an outstanding Dr Matthew A. Eichler “Research Fellow Award” from Asia Pacific Consortium for Researchers and Educators (APCORE), Guam, USA, 2018.

 

  • Rutgers University, USA
  • Title:Iron Regulated Biogenesis of Extracellular Vesicles in Mycobacterium tuberculosis
  • Time :

Abstract:

Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb), the etiological agent of tuberculosis (TB) in humans, releases extracellular vesicles in vitro and in vivo. Like extracellular vesicles released by Gram-positive bacteria, mycobacterial extracellular vesicles originate at the plasma membrane. Mycobacterial membrane vesicles contain a broad range of immunologically active proteins and glycolipids that can influence host cellular immunity. When added to cells in culture, isolated membrane vesicles can regulate the immune response of uninfected macrophages, T-cells and dendritic cells suggesting a pathogenic role of membrane vesicles in immunomodulation and immune evasion. It has been recognized that vesicle biogenesis in M. tuberculosis is an active and regulated process, but the molecular mechanisms and factors involved remain largely unknown. Iron limitation, a condition encountered in the host, induces the production of membrane vesicles in M. tuberculosis. These vesicles contain the hydrophobic siderophore mycobactin, which can serve as an iron donor and supports replication of iron-starved mycobacteria. Based on these observations we have used a genetic approach to identify the principles governing iron regulated vesicle biogenesis and the molecular determinants of vesiculation in M. tuberculosis, which will be the focus of the presentation.

Biography:

Dr.G. Marcela Rodriguez is an Associate Professor in the Public Health Research Institute, Department of Medicine at New Jersey Medical School, Rutgers University in Newark, New Jersey. She received her undergraduate degree from Pontificia Universidad Javeriana in Colombia SA, and a Ph.D from New York University, NY. During her training, Dr. Rodriguez developed a keen interest in infections diseases particularly tuberculosis. As a post-doctoral fellow (1999-2007) in Issar Smith’s lab at The Public Health Research Institute she was awarded a fellowship from the Parker Francis Foundation to study iron metabolism and regulation in M. tuberculosis. Dr. Rodriguez received an award from The Hispanic Center of Excellence at UMDNJ in 2011 and start her independent research program, which has been focused in the metallobiology of M. tuberculosis and its role in pathogenesis.

  • Siksha O Anusandhan Deemed to be University, India
  • Title:Periodontal Infections and Hyperglycemia: A Bidirectional Dynamics
  • Time :

Abstract:

A bidirectional dynamics has been observed between hyperglycemia and periodontal infections. Higher rate of activation pathways are induced due to hyperglycemia which is responsible for inflammation thereby leading to macrovascular as well as microvascular complications, along with oxidative stress and apoptosis. A raised level of inflammatory markers such as: IL6, TNF-α and C-reactive protein occurs in the pathological manifestation of hyperglycemic events which in turn prompts acute-phase of inflammation leading to impaired signaling of insulin function and insulin resistance. On the other hand, enhanced systemic inflammation due to periodontal diseases mediated by the release of IL6 and TNF-α happens when associated with hyperglycemia. A paradigm shift in the oral microbiota due to hyperglycemic condition results in an increase in the pathogenicity of associated pathogenic microbes as a consequences an increased inflammation and bone loss in periodontal pathologies occurs. Inflammatory periodontal disease and diabetes show the cyclic relationship between the two. Diabetes predisposes the individual to periodontal infections and also the later exacerbates or worsens the glycemic control in diabetic patients. Routine periodontal examination provides an insight for the early diagnosis of diabetes in undiagnosed patients and may reduce the worsening of metabolic control thereby preventing serious complications. Also the oral health of diabetic patients may be improved and well maintained with proper management of blood glucose levels. Therefore large-scale prospective epidemiological analysis are the only sought after approach to clearly bring in the connectivity between Diabetes and Periodontal disease.

Biography:

Dr.K. Swapna Kumari, BDS Dental surgeon from Utkal University, Odisha in the year 2011. Has been working as faculty in Institute of Dental Sciences, Siksha O Anusandhan Deemed to be University, Bhubaneswar, Odisha, India. Research Interest: Genomic analysis of oral microbiome in apical periodontitis

  • Siksha ‘O’ Anusandhan (Deemed to be) University, India
  • Title:Lifestyle Transition from Environment to Opportunist of Chryseobacterium gallinarum
  • Time :

Abstract:

The lifestyle transition in a bacteria from environment to opportunist results in either the loss or/and acquisition of specific genes. Such changeovers in turn will help them adapted to inhabit and sustain at the starting point for interactions with new hosts.
We have come across one such MDR Chryseobacterium gallinarum from OPD of a tertiary care hospital of India from a 20 years old female urine sample. WGS analysis of the bacteria shared >99% identity with one keratin degrading non-pathogenic C. gallinarum, reported from a pharyngeal scrape of a seemingly healthy chicken from the state of Saxony-Anhalt, Germany. The multi-drug resistant phenotypic profiling of the strain differed from the respective genomic information and found harboring two novel β-lactamases; an ambler class blaIND-17 and a serine blaCIA-5. Sensitivity to vancomycin by the isolate, the uncommon event of any gram negative bacteria further added to our curiosity which could be due to complete loss of LPS in C. gallinarum conferring polymyxin resistance. The discovery of mutated lpxD gene from genome analysis presents additional evidence in support, though needs further validation. Fluorescent Microscopic-Hela Cell invasion assay showed the infection ability of the isolate, a primary episode towards evolutionary transition from environmental to pathogenic.
So far our knowledge goes, this is the first report of the evolution of Chryseobacterium gallinarum from an environmental to a pathogenic multidrug-resistant bacterium harbouring co-resistance to antibiotics of last resort carbapenems and colistin.

Biography:

Dr.Enketeswara Subudhi Alumni of Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur, Now Professor, Center for Biotechnology, Siksha ‘O’ Anusandhan (Deemed to be)University, Bhubaneswar, India Since 2006, Before that Senior Lecturer at Amity Institute of Biotechnology, Amity University, New Delhi, Since 2004. Biotech Industry: Earlier to 2004, Product Development officer, International Panacea Ltd., New Delhi and Scientist, Quality Control, Jain Foods (100% E.O.U), Jain Groups of Company, Jalgaon
Present Area of Research: Understanding molecular mechanisms behind MDR in Bacteria, Metagenomics, Metatranscriptomics of microbiome of thermophilic ponds, Microbial community study of oral cavity, Repurposing of FDA approved drugs against resistant bacteria

  • University of Seville, Spain
  • Title:Dynamics and Numerical Simulations to Predict Empirical Antibiotic Treatment of Multi-Resistant Pseudomonas Aeruginosa Infection.
  • Time :

Abstract:

This lecture discloses an epidemiological mathematical model to predict an empirical treat- ment for dogs infected by Pseudomonas aeruginosa. This dangerous pathogen is one of the leading causes of multi-resistant infections and can be transmitted from dogs to humans. Numerical simulations and appropriated codes were developed using Matlab software to gather information concerning long-time dynamics of the susceptible, infected and recov- ered individuals. All data compiled from the mathematical model was used to provide an appropriated antibiotic sensitivity panel for this specific infection. In this study, several variables have been included in this model to predict which treatment should be pre- scribed in emergency cases, when there is no time to perform an antibiogram or the cost of it could not be assumed. In particular, we highlight the use of this model aiming to become part of the convenient toolbox of Public Health research and decision-making in the design of the mitigation strategy of bacterial pathogens.

Biography:

Dr.María Pérez-Aranda graduated in Veterinary Medicine in the University of Cordoba (Spain) in 2013. She has specialized in Dermatology, obtaining the GP certificate in Dermatology of the International School of Veterinary Postgraduate Studies (ISVPS) in 2016. She combines her clinical work with her research career, doing her PhD degree in Pharmacy in the University of Seville in Organic Chemistry and Microbiology and Parasitology departments. Also she is part of PAIDI-Bio-307 research group at the Veterinary University in Cordoba. She has published numerous papers and book chapters in national and international journals and manuals and has contributed with several communications in national and international congresses. In addition, she is affiliated at the European Society of Veterinary Dermatology and the Spanish Association of Specialists in Small Animal Medicine.

  • Colorado State University, USA
  • Title:Recent Developments in Diagnostics for Adult Pulmonary Tuberculosis: (2012-2020)
  • Time :

Abstract:

Tuberculosis remains one of the leading causes of death worldwide. Although, WHO’s latest Global TB Report says that 2018 saw a reduction in the number of TB deaths-an estimated 36% of new TB cases remain undiagnosed or unreported, partly due to the limitations of current diagnostic tools used. Conventional diagnostic tests for microbiological confirmation rely on sputum samples, which can be difficult to obtain and have low diagnostic sensitivity in children, and patients with extrapulmonary TB (EPTB). A major component of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis cell envelope is lipoarabinomannan (LAM), non-covalently associated with the membrane and extends to the exterior of the cell wall. LAM from a culture is heterogeneous in size, branching pattern, acylation, and phosphorylation on the arabinan and mannan portions and has an average molecular weight of 15.4 kilodaltons. With bacterial replication and degradation in the lung, LAM is released, circulating in the blood, filtered across the glomerular basal membrane of the kidneys into urine. We and others have shown that urinary LAM is a viable biomarker for diagnosis of active TB. Many of the recent developments in the structure of LAM in urine, its antigenicity and availability in clinical specimens as a biomarker to develop affordable PoC tests will be presented.

Biography:
Dr.Delphi Chatterjee completed phd from University of London, UK in 1980 ,done Post Doctoral Fellow (1982) in plant polysaccharides at York University,Canada and Post Doctoral Fellow in ID (Mycobacteria) at Colorado State University (1985) ,USA.She has successfully administered research projects funded by the NIH, Philanthropic Organizations and Universities, (e.g. recruiting, staffing, research protections, budget), collaborated with other researchers, and produced peer-reviewed publications from each project. Her author or co-author of 130 research
papers listed in PubMed.She has been the PI or Co-PI of several NIH research grants, a member of special or ad hoc NIH study sections, all of which dealt with bacterial diseases. Due to recent efforts in our laboratory, they have now developed methods where LAM could be released successfully from complexes in serum and urine, and then detected in subnanomolar concentrations.

  • Federal University, Brazil
  • Title:Staphylococcus saprophyticus Studies Related to Virulence, Persistence and Immunoproteomic Approach for Diagnosis
  • Time :

Abstract:

Staphylococcus saprophyticus is a Gram-positive and coagulase negative cocci that composes the skin microbiota and can act as opportunistic agent causing urinary tract infections (UTI), being more frequent in sexually active young women. The ability of a pathogen to cause infection in the host is associated to its ability to adhere to host cells and to survive to host immune defenses. Our results show that clinical strains can possess differences in the protein repertoire, specially related to expression of virulence factors. Phenotypic, genotypic and proteomic differences reflect in the ability to survive during interaction with host cells and our data describes proteomic flexibility among S. saprophyticus strains reflecting in virulence and persistence. On the other hand, the proteins secreted by pathogenic microorganisms are the first molecules to interact with the host during infection, for this reason, the secreted antigens represent important targets for the development of diagnostic tests, vaccines and immunotherapies for infectious diseases. Our research group detected – by using immunoproteomic approach – epitopes of B cells from S. saprophyticus secreted proteins. The detection and selection of potential targets for the identification of S. saprophyticus can be used to develop new quickly diagnostic tools for detecting UTI.

  • Slovak Medical University, Slovakia
  • Title:Left Inferior Epigastric Artery Injury in COVID-19 Patient
  • Time :

Abstract:

Introduction
Management of COVID-19 pneumonia cases is a medical challenge. However, the situation becomes worse if the patient has coexisting morbidities or newly developed complications. The study is about managing rectus sheath haematoma (RSH) in a patient with COVID-19 pneumonia.
Presentation of case
The patient was a 75-year-old male, presenting with bilateral COVID-19 pneumonia, with pulmonary embolism complications. Therapeutic anticoagulation by subcutaneous Clexane injection was administered. A left RSH was observed, and the patient fell and underwent haemorrhagic shock. Laparotomy was done for the evacuation of the haematoma.
Discussion
Contrast-enhanced computed tomography (CECT) is an essential tool for diagnosing RSH, identifying the source of bleeding, type of haematoma, and compression of the urinary system.
Conclusion
Surgical management of RSH in COVID-19 patients is superior to interventional radiology during the rush pandemic period.

Biography:

Dr. Ilkin Bakirli is a resident in Vascular Surgery currently working in the National Institute of Cardiovascular diseases in Bratislava, Slovakia. Dr. Ilkin is a young hard working doctor with demonstrated determination to learn more and more. He has graduated from the Slovak Medical University in June 2020.

  • Slovak Medical University, Slovakia
  • Title:Left Inferior Epigastric Artery Injury in COVID-19 Patient
  • Time :

Abstract:

Introduction
Management of COVID-19 pneumonia cases is a medical challenge. However, the situation becomes worse if the patient has coexisting morbidities or newly developed complications. The study is about managing rectus sheath haematoma (RSH) in a patient with COVID-19 pneumonia.
Presentation of case
The patient was a 75-year-old male, presenting with bilateral COVID-19 pneumonia, with pulmonary embolism complications. Therapeutic anticoagulation by subcutaneous Clexane injection was administered. A left RSH was observed, and the patient fell and underwent haemorrhagic shock. Laparotomy was done for the evacuation of the haematoma.
Discussion
Contrast-enhanced computed tomography (CECT) is an essential tool for diagnosing RSH, identifying the source of bleeding, type of haematoma, and compression of the urinary system.
Conclusion
Surgical management of RSH in COVID-19 patients is superior to interventional radiology during the rush pandemic period.

Biography:

Dr. Hasan Bakirli is a resident in General Surgery currently working in St. Cyril and Methodius hospital in Bratislava, Slovakia. Dr. Hasan is very hard working. He has graduated from the Slovak Medical University in June 2020.

  • Co-Founder, CTO and Chairman of Board of Directors of MeMed ,Isreal
  • Title:Monitoring the Host Immune Response to Predict COVID-19 Severity and Response to Treatment
  • Time :

Abstract:

Out of a hundred COVID-19 patients, less than five percent will experience severe disease, hospitalization, ventilation and mortality . A number of risk factors have been proposed and validated in wide population studies, and include age, smoking history and diabetes. However, each of these factors lack the sufficient sensitivity and specificity to support the early detection of patients at high risk of severe COVID-19. Additionally, in patients who already present with moderate to severe COVID-19, physicians lack effective and accessible tools to monitor disease deterioration or response to treatment. Given COVID-19’s high correlation with a patient’s immune response, new host immune response measurement technologies are showing promise in changing the paradigm of COVID-19 patient stratification and management.

Researchers at Israel’s Rabin Medical Center, in collaboration with MeMed, have published prospective data on the potential utility of a 15-minute point of need solution that measures TRAIL and IP-10, two viral-induced host immune biomarkers, in stratifying patients with severe COVID-19 and managing their treatment. This data, in addition to a decade-long series of studies on dozens of other respiratory viral infections, shows that serial measurements of the viral-induced immune proteins TRAIL and IP-10 can be a valuable resource for predicting disease severity and progression, and for monitoring individual patient responses to treatment for severe COVID-19.

In this session, Dr. Kfir Oved will discuss the study findings, as well as recent advances in the technologies used to probe the host response to infection, particularly those based on proteomics. The session will also highlight how predictive biomarkers and the actionable insights they provide can potentially be used to improve COVID-19 patient management, enabling interventions that can help reduce ICU admissions, the need for ventilation and, ultimately, mortality.

Biography:

Dr. Kfir Oved has over 15 years of combined industry and academic experience, leading interdisciplinary teams combining biotechnology and biochemistry, applied immunology, engineering, and big data in multiple clinical applications. Kfir co-founded MeMed and serves as its Chairman of the Board. For over a decade, he served as CTO of MeMed, where he led the inception, development, and clinical validation of the entire MeMed technology suite, including the MeMed BV™ test, and the MeMed Key™ point-of-need platform, from an idea on a napkin to development completion.
Dr. Oved holds a B.A. in Biology (Summa Cum Laude), B.Sc. in medicine (Magna Cum Laude), and Ph.D. in molecular immunology, and trained for six years at the Technion School of Medicine. Dr. Oved is the co- author of over 100 granted and pending patents, the author of over 20 peer-reviewed publications, and the recipient of multiple research excellence awards, including the Gutwirth Excellence award an Wolf Award for research students. In 2019, he was listed among the top 25 voices in precision medicine by BIS research. Dr. Oved is among the inceptors of the AI-based health data company Navina and serves as its Chief Strategy and Innovation Officer. Last year, he founded Canopy Immuno-Therapeutics, a stealth mode biotech company engaged in developing a novel immunotherapeutic approach for autoimmunity and life-threatening allergy.

  • Institute of Allergies and Self-Immunity , Mexico
  • Title: Cytokines and Growth Factors Contained in a Biologic Product Administrated Sublingually for Autoimmune and Allergic Diseases
  • Time :

Abstract

The Mexican population widely uses traditional medicine from herbal treatments, alternative therapies, and the well-known “immuno-modulator,” which aims to relieve both allergic and autoimmune diseases by modulating the immune response. Theoretically, it has been managed that auto-allergens are eliminated in the urine, cytokines released according to the inflammatory response of each individual. In the ’50s, Dr. Maximiliano Ruiz Castañeda develops a method to take advantage of the eliminated elements in the urine to induce an immunomodulatory response.The treatment has been employed for more than 50 years of uninterrupted use, partly supporting its effectiveness. However, no previous study has determined the composition of this immunomodulator. Despite the benefits of this treatment, the molecular mechanisms underlying its effects have not been thoroughly investigated. Therefore, this study aims to identify immunoregulatory peptides, such as cytokines and growth factors, in the immune-modulator, and las physical, chemical, and quality characteristics to effectively and safely use this product. Urine and immune-modulator concentrations of cytokines and growth factors were assessed using a Luminex assay. Twenty-one cytokines and growth factors were identified in immune-modulator samples. MCP-1 was identified in 100% of the samples; MIP-1β, IL-8, RANTES, INF-γ, and IP-10 were identified in approximately 65–70% of samples; IL5, IL-1B, and IL-17 in 50–60%; eotaxin, VEGF, IL-6, and FGF in about 40%; MIP-1α, IL-9, GM-CSF, G-CSF, IL-12, and IL-15 in about 20–30%; other were found in less percentage.Additionally, patients exhibited significant changes in IL-1β, IFN-γ, and MCP-1 concentrations after treatment with the immune-modulator. The immune-modulator is an alternative treatment based on the sublingual administration of cytokines and growth factors obtained from the urine of patients. In this study, its composition was characterized. pH, sterility was also verified. The isolated products
could be responsible for the effects of the immune-modulator. Further trials are required to evaluate the effective delivery of these molecules by the administration route described.

  • Federal Fluminense University, Brazil
  • Title:Sporotrichosis: Challenges of a Fungal Neglected Disease
  • Time :

Abstract:

Sporotrichosis is a subcutaneous mycosis caused by pathogenic fungi of the genus Sporothrix. Sporothrix schenckii infections have a worldwide distribution; the Brazilian outbreak is caused by S. brasiliensis while, in China, S. globosa transmitted through the sapronotic route became an epidemic among farmers. Sporothrix inoculation is required for infection and often occurs through a cutaneous trauma caused by plant thorns and wood splinters, popularly known as Gardner’s disease, or by cat scratching/biting. This last route of infection became important in Brazil since the mid-90’s outbreak, leading up to the currently hyperendemic neglected zoonosis in this country, along with recent evidence of a potential spreading to South America. In fact, S. brasiliensis is highly pathogenic, and cats show a unique interaction with this fungus, possibly determined by its high susceptibility, displaying severe disease forms which require prolonged antifungal administration. Frequently, domestic felines are refractory to itraconazole, the main azole used in the sporotrichosis treatment, with reports of relapse and treatment abandonment. As in other fungal infections, the immune system plays a central role in the pathogenesis of sporotrichosis. In cats the most unfavorable prognosis presents due to indiscriminate spread of Sporothrix yeasts, maintaining the high fungal load on the lesions and increasing the zoonotic potential of this host, thus resulting in severe clinical conditions. This suggests that in addition to the virulence of the fungus, feline immunity may contribute to the poor ability to control Sporothrix multiplication. The different types of host immune response to Sporothrix virulence factors were both in vitro and in vivo studied, mainly in murine and human models. Nonetheless, very little is known about the immune response of cats against Sporothrix, motivating our group to mobilize efforts and to describe a novel protocol of S. schenckii and S. brasiliensis in vitro exposure to domestic feline PBMCs. Such new method will provide a unique opportunity to investigate Sporothrix-cat interaction and, therefore, open doors for the future discovery of new ways to better treat feline sporotrichosis, a major Public Health concern. Indeed, recently, we described the coinfection of domestic felines residing in hyperendemic sporotrichosis areas by more than one S. brasiliensis isolates. These show disparate phenotypic parameters such as cytokine levels after PBMC interaction and different responses to antifungal agents. Likewise, it is quite possible that cat coinfection by this species represents a common occurrence with potential clinical implications. In this lecture we will present and discuss our main research data focusing on the “One Health approach” and its key concepts for better facing and future coping with this relevant fungal disease.

Biography:

Dr.Andréa Regina de Souza Baptista, Associate Professor at the Department of Microbiology and Parasitology at Fluminense Federal University, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Advises masters, doctoral and post-doctoral students in three Graduate Programs (Microbiology and Parasitology, Veterinary Medicine and Science and Biotechnology). Leader of the Research Group Center for Microorganisms’ Investigation, coordinates the homonymous laboratory. Ad hoc reviewer of high-impact journals and a consultant member of international funding agencies. Member of the “Working Group on Sporotrichosis” of the International Society for Human and Animal Mycoses (ISHAM). Leading subjects of investigation are the pathogen-host interaction, molecular and serologycal diagnostic methods and the molecular epidemiology of infectious and parasitic agents, especially Sporothrix spp. and Plasmodium vivax.

  • Jersey Shore University Medical Center, USA
  • Title:Cytokine Storm Induced New Onset Depression in Patients with COVID-19. A New Look into the Association between Depression and Cytokines -Two Case Reports
  • Time :

Abstract:

Background: Depression appears to be a common complication in patients during and post–COVID-19 infection. Understanding the mechanism of action of cytokines such as interleukin-6, interleukin-10 and others in depression and in cytokine storm syndrome, the core component of COVID- 19, could shine a new light on future treatment options for both disorders.

Objective: This review demonstrates the role of interleukins in COVID-19 pathogenesis and
their role in depression.

Results: We described cases we have treated as an example for the dual role interleukins have in COVID-19 infection and depression and reviewed approximately 70 articles focusing on the role of interleukins in cytokine storm syndrome and depression.

Conclusion: This review highlights the key features of cytokines in both diseases. As the scientific community has more time to recover and process the effect of the current pandemic, we believe that additional research will pave the way to diverse pathways to treat depression in these patients and others.

Biography:

Dr.Orna Alpert a psychiatrist who specializes in Child and Adolescent Psychiatry and Psychosomatic Medicine. She treat children and adults with depression disorder, PTSD, delirium, somatization and drug and alcohol addiction. Her specialty involves the evaluation and treatment of patients with co-morbid medical illness and psychiatric symptoms. She has a special interest in organ transplantation and worked at the Children’s Hospital of Philadelphia and Yale-New Haven Hospital with liver, kidney and heart transplant candidates.During her time at the Medical College of Wisconsin, she was director of transplant services.
As a result of the COVID-19 pandemic, she has focused on patients who exhibited complications such as delirium, depression and Guillain-Barre Syndrome.
Most of her work in recent years has focused on Consultation-Liaison Psychiatry or Psychosomatic Medicine. She remain active academically and continue to publish and give lectures.
She recently received the honor of becoming a Fellow of the Academy of Consultation-Liaison Psychiatry.

  • University of South Africa, South Africa
  • Title:Forging a Joint Effort in Sharing Knowledge between Indigenous Knowledge Practitioners and Medical Practitioners: A Qualitative Study
  • Time :

Abstract:

The application of indigenous knowledge system among South Africans is a very old practice that is still intact regardless of improved exposure to modern developments in diagnosis and treatment of illnesses at the health facilities. These illnesses include those that are regarded as new in the medical fraternity and in indigenous knowledge system. For various reasons, some patients believe in self-medication depending on their personal knowledge of the herbs or medications they used in the past or through an advice from family members, friends, traditional healers and medical practitioners. This usually excludes many scheduled medications such as antibiotics that are available to patients through a medical practitioner’s prescription letter. Because of lack of proper education in scientific processing of traditional herbs and medicines, and the knowledge of the illnesses that may need scientific or professional diagnosis, most patients lose their lives unnecessarily. This study aims at reducing the number of unnecessary deaths caused by misdiagnosis, self-medication and improper therapeutic practices resulting from lack of proper knowledge by promoting the use of scientific and professional diagnosis and treatment of illnesses through joint consultations and sharing of scientific and indigenous knowledge system. Participants are sampled from traditional health practitioners, community health workers and caregivers in the African communities. They are identified by pseudonyms. The researcher will conduct open-ended interviews. The results show that some patients use their general knowledge and/or consult traditional and medical practitioners to treat their symptoms or illnesses. Some patients go for a second opinion when the illness has already advanced to a stage of high risk. Some patients misdiagnose themselves or are misdiagnosed and given incorrect medication or treatment by their traditional or medical practitioners. It would be when their conditions are complicating that they would seek a second opinion or help in a health facility. Traditional herbs and medicines are usually administered without proper diagnosis, hygienic preparations and dosages. In addition to this, proper therapeutic processes are not followed up after signs of improvement or seeking a second opinion in a case where there is no improvement in the expected healing.

Biography:

Dr. Cordelia Nkwinika (Khoza) is a Lecturer in the Department of African Languages, University of South Africa. She was an Educator for 28 years before joining the university six years ago. She is a translator and an author. Her publications are: (1) Maintenance of the Message in the Translation of Literary Texts: A Contribution or an Onslaught to African Languages. (2) The Hidden Gendered Anger in Marriages: The Case of Xitsonga Culture. She has presented these papers at conferences: (1) Uneven Distribution of Wealth through Political Manipulation as Expressed in J. M. Magaisa’s Poetry: Moral-Philosophical Perspective of the Politics of the New Era. (2) A Review of the Psychoanalysis Approach: The case of Ndlandlalati ya Malenga. (3) The Case of the Naming in Ndlandlalati ya Malenga by A.D. Mahatlane. (4) A Reflection on Places with Dual or More Place Names at Bushbuckridge (Mpumalanga Province in South Africa).

  • Suez Canal University, Egypt
  • Title:Blood Transfusion Safety, Knowledge among Medical Staffs Pre and Post Educational Intervention
  • Time :

Abstract:

Most of the serious hazards of blood transfusion from human factors and only 10% of them were not preventable, thus staff training on safe blood transfusion was strongly recommended. Aim: To assess blood transfusion safety knowledge among medical staffs and how much it improves after intervention. Results: Near miss was identified by only half of the participants and around 78.3%, 63.2%, and 60% of them correctly identified the indication of red blood cells, fresh frozen plasma, and platelet transfusion. These percentages were significantly improved post education. Only 50% knew that it’s not allowed to co-administrate drugs or IV fluids with the transfused blood and that rose to almost 80% after intervention. Consent information and correct patient identification were well known among most of the staff. Only 18.4% knew the pre transfusion screening protocol, which was increased to 85.8 % post education. Almost 65.3% correctly responded to the transfusion reaction quiz with no marked change after intervention. Age and work experience were significant independent risk factors for poor knowledge of safety transfusion. Methods: A quasi-experimental study was conducted on 190 participants most of them were working on a tertiary non- teaching hospital for more than 8 years. A questionnaire was designed and validated through a pilot study after which all participants were invited to fill it pre and post educational intervention. The educational material has been prepared based on the WHO blood transfusion safety guidelines (WHO/EHT/10.05) in the form of leaflets and short power point presentations prepared by the researcher and reviewed by external experts in the field. Conclusion: Transfusion safety knowledge needs further enhancement with more tailored training programs focusing on the topics that didn’t show a significant change after our educational training.

Biography:
Dr.Shaimaa Sahmoud MD, MRCPCH. She is a Lecturer of Pediatrics at Suez Canal University, Egypt.She has published few papers in reputed journals.

  • Divino Espirito Santo Hospital, Portugal
  • Title:Rifampicin-Induced Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation: An Antibody-Mediated Side Effect
  • Time :

Abstract:

Rifampicin (RFM) remains an effective treatment of pulmonary tuberculosis. However, serious reactions such as haemolytic anaemia, acute renal failure, and disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC) have been documented. DIC secondary to RFM is a consequence of a rare immunoallergic reaction caused by the intermittent administration of RFM. Clinical features of that reaction include fever, hypotension, abdominal pain, and vomiting within hours of ingestion. Future administration of RFM is contraindicated. The authors present the case of a 68-year-old man with DIC due to RFM. The review of the existing literature identified only 13 previously reported cases of RFM-induced DIC. The prior treatment with RFM, the temporal association between the two episodes of DIC and the RFM intake, as well as the absence of new episodes after its interruption, pointed to the causal role of the drug in the case described. The suspicion was confirmed post mortem by the anti-RFM IgG and IgM antibodies in the patient’s serum. The present case is intended to draw attention to a rare side effect of a commonly used drug.

  • Alzaiem Alazhari University, Sudan
  • Title:Multidrug Resistant Pseudomonas (P) aeruginosa: Medical Impact, Pathogenicity, Resistance Mechanisms and Epidemiology
  • Time :

Abstract:

Drug resistant bacteria which are known as super bugs are challenging worldwide problems as they increase the costs of hospitalization, uses of highly toxic drugs and may associated with high mortality rate. Multidrug resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa (MDRPA) is one of the most important drug resistant strains. This review handling the frequency of MDRPA, risk factors and resistance mechanisms associated with MDRPA. It’s naturally known that P. aeruginosa express a high resistant manner, this attributed to loss of membrane permeability, efflux pumping of the antimicrobial agents and acquired resistant through acquisition of resistance genes in addition to its virulence factors which contribute to the resistance mechanisms. The frequency of MDRPA ranged from 12-36% of isolated P. aeruginosa from different location of the world. It’s highly recommended to focus on drug resistance mechanisms for all microorganisms especially MDR P. aeruginosa to avoid having untreatable infection and superbugs.

Biography:

Dr.Eltayib Hassan Ahmed Mohamed Osman PhD from Sardar Patel University (India) 2010 – Two of his papers have been listed as first and second papers among the top 10 articles published in same domain, under who is publishing in his domain program- 2011. – He is acting as editorial member or reviewer for the following respected journal; editorial member of the Journal of Microbiology Research Journal, referee of Process Biochemistry Journal, referee of African Journal of Microbiology, referee of African Journal of Biotechnology. – His overarching research interests revolve around the diagnostic microbiology using molecular tools as well conventional methods, determine emerging of antibiotic resistant organisms (with emphases on Hiscobacterium Tuberculosis, MDR & XDR).

  • University of Tizi-Ouzou, Algeria
  • Title:Synthesis, Spectroscopic, Thermal Decomposition, DFT Studies and Antibacterial Activity of Uracil Cobalt(IIIDdimethylglyoximato Complexes
  • Time :

Abstract:

Three new mixed-ligand complexes of the type [Co(Hdmg)2(Ura)X], where Hdmg = dimethylglyoximato anion, Ura = uracil, and X = Cl, Br, or I, were synthesized and characterized using elemental analyses, molar conductance, IR and UV-visible spectroscopies. The molar conductance values indicate that the compounds are not electrolytes. The thermal decomposition was studied using TG and DSC techniques. It is shown that the decomposition process of all complexes occurs in three steps. The IR spectra of the complexes show that the four nitrogen atoms of oxime functions of the two Hdmg mono-anions are linked to the central atom, the whole moiety forming an equatorial plane. Uracil (-N) and halogen occupy the apical sites in the trans position in an octahedral arrangement. The absorption bands observed in the UV-visible spectra are due either to intra-ligand transitions, ligand-metal charge transfer transitions or d-d transitions. Density Functional Theory (DFT) calculations have been successfully used to investigate the nature of the bonding in the complexes. The antibacterial activities of the complexes and their combinations were tested against escherichia coli, pseudomonas aeruginosa, klebsiella pneumonia, proteus mirabilis, staphylococcus aureus, and bacillus cereus. The combination of iodo and bromo complexes showed a strong inhibitory power compared to the other combinations and to the free complexes.

Biography:

Dr. Omar Berradj, Teacher-researcher of Chemistry, Science faculty, University of Tizi-Ouzou, Algeria. He had interest in studies of new chemical compounds: synthesis, experimental and theoretical characterization, and evaluation of biological activity. He graduated of Polytechnic school of Algiers, and he has got his Magister degree in the same school. In university of Tizi-Ouzou, he has got his PHD and ability to supervise researches.

  • Scientific Committee of Foundation “Allineare Sanità e Salute”,Italy
  • Title:Influenza Vaccination of Pregnant Women and Serious Adverse Events in the Offspring
  • Time :

Abstract:

Pregnant women are increasingly considered a priority group for influenza vaccination, but the evidence in favor relies mainly on observational studies, subject to the “healthy-vaccinee bias”. Propensity score methods – sometimes applied – reduce but cannot eliminate residual confounding.
Meta-analyses of observational studies show relative risks far from the thresholds that would confirm the efficacy of universal vaccination for pregnant women without needing randomized controlled trials (RCTs). Critical articles have shown that in the four RCTs investigating the outcomes of this vaccination there was a tendency to higher offspring mortality. In the largest RCT there was a significant excess of presumed/serious neonatal infections, and also significantly more serious adverse events.Many widely acknowledged observational results (about hormone replacing therapy, vitamin D, omega-3 fatty acids, etc.) were confuted by RCTs. Therefore the international drive to consider this vaccination a “standard of care” is not justified yet. Moreover, there is the risk of precluding further independent RCTs for “ethical considerations”, so as “to not deny the benefits of influenza vaccinations to pregnant women of a control group”. Instead, before promoting national campaigns for universal vaccination in pregnancy further large, independent and reassuring RCTs are needed, even braving challenging a current paradigm.
Until then, influenza vaccination should be offered to pregnant women only once open information is available about the safety uncertainties, to allow truly informed choices, and anyway promoting also other protective behaviors.

Biography:

Dr. Alberto Donzelli was past Director of the Service of Appropriateness Education and EBM at the Agency for Health Protection of Milan. He received his Doctoral degree and specialization in Hygiene&Preventive Medicine from the University of Milan. He has authored several scientific and educational publications in various indexed journals and books, reflecting his research interests in Prevention, Public Health, Medical Education and Comparative Assessment of Drugs&Health Technologies. Dr. Donzelli is also the Editor of the Good clinical practice Pills for doctors and Health education Pills for citizens, and Founder and member of the Executive Board of the Foundation Allineare Sanità e Salute.
Research Interest: Health Promotion, Prevention, Public Health and rewarding systems better aligning the stakeholders’ interests with health, Medical and Lay people Education, Comparative Assessment of Drugs&Health Technologies.

  • National Cancer Institute at Frederick, USA
  • Title:The Protective Role of Chemoattractant GPCRs, Formylpeptide Receptors, in Colon Inflammation, Microbiome Balance and Carcinogenesis
  • Time :

Abstract:

A hallmark of inflammatory responses is leukocyte mobilization, which is mediated by bacterial and host tissue-derived chemotactic factors that activate Gi-protein-coupled seven-transmembrane receptors (GPCRs) expressed on host cell surface. Formylpeptide receptors (FPRs, Fprs in mice) are members of the chemoattractant GPCR family, shown to be critical in myeloid cell trafficking during infection, inflammation, immune responses and cancer progression. Accumulating evidence demonstrates that both human FPRs and murine Fprs are involved in many patho-physiological processes because of their expression on a wide variety of cell types in addition to myeloid cells. The unique capacity of FPRs (Fprs) to interact with numerous structurally unrelated, pathogen- as well as host-derived, chemotactic ligands enables these receptors to participate in orchestrated disease initiation, progression and resolution. One murine Fpr member, Fpr2, and its endogenous agonist peptide, Cathelicidin-related antimicrobial peptide (CRAMP), have been demonstrated as key mediators of colon mucosal homeostasis and protection from inflammation, dysbiosis and associated tumorigenesis. Recent availability of genetically engineered mouse models greatly expanded the understanding of the role of FPRs (Fprs) in pathophysiology that places these molecules in the list of potential targets for therapeutic intervention of diseases.

Biography:

Dr. Ji Ming Wang received his M.D. degree in 1983 at Shanghai Second Medical University (currently Shanghai Jiaotong University School of Medicine) Graduate School at the Faculty of Chest Surgery, majoring in the Surgical and Immunological Therapy of Lung Cancer, in Shanghai, P. R. China. In 1987, he obtained a Ph.D. degree at the Lombardy School for High Education with the major in Immunology (located at the Mario Negri Pharmacological Research Institute with Dr. Alberto Matovani as the mentor), Milan, Italy. Dr. Wang joined the National Cancer Institute at Frederick in 1990 as a Visiting Scientist (with Dr. Joost J. Oppenheim as the mentor). He then became an independent Principal Investigator in 1996. In 2002, he was promoted to the position of tenured Senior Investigator. Dr. Wang’s major research interest is the role of G-protein coupled chemoattractant receptors (GPCRs) in pathophysiological conditions.

  • Central Institute for Tuberculosis, Russia
  • Title: Genetic and Intra-Species Approaches for Dissecting Tuberculosis Infection Pathogenesis
  • Time :

Abstract:

Pregnant women are increasingly considered a priority group for influenza vaccination, but the evidence in favor relies mainly on observational studies, subject to the “healthy-vaccinee bias”. Propensity score methods – sometimes applied – reduce but cannot eliminate residual confounding.
Meta-analyses of observational studies show relative risks far from the thresholds that would confirm the efficacy of universal vaccination for pregnant women without needing randomized controlled trials (RCTs). Critical articles have shown that in the four RCTs investigating the outcomes of this vaccination there was a tendency to higher offspring mortality. In the largest RCT there was a significant excess of presumed/serious neonatal infections, and also significantly more serious adverse events.
Many widely acknowledged observational results (about hormone replacing therapy, vitamin D, omega-3 fatty acids, etc.) were confuted by RCTs. Therefore the international drive to consider this vaccination a “standard of care” is not justified yet. Moreover, there is the risk of precluding further independent RCTs for “ethical considerations”, so as “to not deny the benefits of influenza vaccinations to pregnant women of a control group”. Instead, before promoting national campaigns for universal vaccination in pregnancy further large, independent and reassuring RCTs are needed, even braving challenging a current paradigm.
Until then, influenza vaccination should be offered to pregnant women only once open information is available about the safety uncertainties, to allow truly informed choices, and anyway promoting also other protective behaviors.

Biography:

Dr.Alexander Apt started his research career in 1973 at the Institute for General Genetics, Moscow, with establishment and serological analysis of mutations in the H2 complex, the mouse MHC. In 1979, he moved to the Central Institute for Tuberculosis (CIT), Moscow, and started immunological and genetic studies of tuberculosis infection in inbred mouse strains. Obtained PhD degree in 1984 from the Gamaleya Institute for Microbiology and Epidemiology, Moscow. 1992-1993 – Visiting Scientist at the McGill Center for the Study of Host Resistance, Montreal. Since 1998 – the Head of Laboratory for Immunogenetics, CIT. Professor of Immunology (2002).

  • John Wayne Cancer Institute , USA
  • Title:Paget’s Disease of Bone: A Viral Disorder?
  • Time :

Abstract:

Paget’s disease of bone, is a focal disorder involving one or more bones which is usually diagnosed in individuals over 50 years of age and also affects one or more family members in about 20% of cases. The earliest phase begins with increased numbers of osteoclasts in an area of the skeleton followed by a slow progression of bone resorption throughout the bone. This is followed by increased osteoblastic activity which results in a disorganized structure and an overgrowth of bone. This can lead to deformity and fractures. The familial aspects of the disease led to genetic analyses of patients. In 2002, mutations in the sequestosome1 gene were first reported in 11/24 families and in 18/112 apparently sporadic patients. At least 28 different mutations have been reported. Other gene mutations have been described but sequestosome1 mutations are the most common mutation reported in families. Since several investigators have found that not all family members develop Paget’s disease by 50-60 years even if they have a mutation this is not sufficient to account for the disease. Also the prevalence of the disease has dropped significantly in the past several decades, a finding that is unlikely related to genetic factors. Environmental factors have been evaluated and the most likely one of importance is measles virus. Initially electron microscopy detected nuclear and cytoplasmic structures resembling nucleocapsids of the paramyxoviridae family in osteoclasts but not other bone cells. Further studies utilizing immunohistochemical analyses and reverse transcription PCR provided evidence that measles virus nucleocapsids were in the osteoclasts. Several other studies have not confirmed these results. However the fact the prevalence of the disease has decreased since the availability of measles vaccine in 1963 suggests that measles virus is a likely factor in the development of the disease and genetic factors increase susceptibility.

Biography:

Dr.Frederick R. Singer is a graduate of the University of California in San Francisco School of Medicine and trained in internal medicine at the Wadsworth Veterans Administration Center in Los Angeles. Endocrinology fellowships were done at the Massachusetts General Hospital in Boston and at the Royal Postgraduate Medical School in London. He was also a Clinical Investigator at the Wadsworth Veterans Administration Medical Center. He then moved to the faculty of the University of Southern California for 15 years, spent 4 years at Cedars Sinai Medical Center in Los Angeles and for the past 29 years has been in the Endocrine/Bone disease Program at the John Wayne Cancer Institute at Providence Saint Johns Health Center in Santa Monica. He is a clinical professor of medicine at the David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA. His research interests have been Paget’s disease of bone, osteoporosis, and primary hyperparathyroidism. He is a past president of the American Society for Bone and Mineral Research and a board member of the National Osteoporosis Foundation.

  • Russian Academy of Medical Science, Russia
  • Title:Aluminum-Stimulated Production of Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) from the Human Gastrointestinal (GI)-Tract Microbiome-Resident Bacteroides Fragilis
  • Time :

Abstract:

Gram-negative obligate anaerobic bacteria of the human GI-tract-microbiome and their immunogenic secretory products have significant potential to serve as a dynamic, life-long source of extremely potent pro-inflammatory enterotoxigenic compounds highly toxic to the central nervous system (CNS). These microbes and their secreted products: (i) are capable of generating a broad-spectrum of highly neurotoxic, pro-inflammatory and potentially pathogenic molecules; and (ii) these include a highly immunogenic class of amphipathic surface glycolipids known as lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Bacteroides fragilis (B. fragilis), a commensal, Gram negative, non-motile, non-spore forming obligatory anaerobic bacillus, and one of the most abundant bacteria found in the human GI tract, produces a particularly pro-inflammatory and neurotoxic LPS (Bf-LPS). Bf-LPS: (i) is secreted from the B. fragilis outer membrane into the external-medium; (ii) can damage biophysiological barriers via cleavage of zonula adherens cell-cell adhesion proteins, thereby disrupting both the GI-tract barrier and the blood-brain barrier (BBB); (iii) is able to transit GI-tract barriers into the systemic circulation and cross the BBB into the human CNS; and (iv) accumulates within CNS neurons in neurodegenerative disorders such as Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Some of these inflammatory signaling events appear to be mediated by the brain-enriched pro-inflammatory microRNA-146a. This presentation will provide evidence that the incubation of B. fragilis with aluminum sulfate [Al2(SO4)3] is a potent inducer of Bf-LPS. The results suggest for the first time that the pro-inflammatory properties of aluminum may not only be propagated by aluminum itself, but by a stimulation in the production of microbiome-derived Bf-LPS and other pro-inflammatory pathogenic microbial products normally secreted from human GI-tract-resident microorganisms.

  • AIAS Structure of Afragola, Italy
  • Title:Identification and Characterization of Nasal Polyposis and Mycoplasma Superinfection by Scanning Electron Microscopy and Nasal Cytology with Optical Microscopy: A Case Report
  • Time :

Abstract:

Nasal polyposis is characterized by benign, non-cancerous and painless growths originating in the tissue of the nasal cavities and paranasal sinuses. Polyps arise from chronic inflammation due to asthma, recurrent infections, allergies, drug sensitivity or immune disorders. They can obstruct the nasal cavities and thus cause respiratory problems, a reduction in the sense of smell and susceptibility to infections. Furthermore, nasal polyps can recur. Hence the importance of using valid diagnostic methods. In this work, the diagnostic investigation carried out by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and nasal cytology led, for the first time, to the identification of a mycoplasma superinfection on nasal polyposis

Biography:

Dr.Arturo Armone Caruso was born in Pozzuoli (Italy-Na) on October 26th 1961. He graduated in Medicine and Surgery at the University of Naples “Federico II” in 1991. He obtained in 1996 at the Institute of Clinic and Pathology Otorhinolaryngology of the University of Naples “Federico II” in 1995, the specialization in Otolaryngology and Head and Neck Surgery with the maximum of votes and praise. Currently, he is a medical director at the AIAS (Association) Italian Disadvantaged Assistance of Afragola) of Afragola where he is Health Director responsible for the ENT sector and nasal cytology. PhD in Applied Morphology and Drug Cytometabolism, Master’s Degree in practical Rinoallergology He is the author of numerous national and international publications. Lecturer at the master of Rinoallergology practice at the University of Rome, “La Sapienza” He has been a speaker at numerous national and international conferences

  • Institute of Space and Astronautical Science, Japan
  • Title:Potential Microbial Transfer from Mars to Its Moons and Earth
  • Time :

Abstract:

Potential microbial transfer from Mars to its moons and even to Earth could be brought about by transportation of Mars ejecta produced by past gigantic meteoroid impacts on Mars. To answer this question, potential microbial transfer processes have been assessed, based on the most probable history of the recent major gigantic meteoroid impacts on Mars. Potential microbial density on Mars was estimated by analogy from the terrestrial areas having the similar arid and cold environments. Mars ejecta transportation from Mars and impact onto the Martian moons are numerically simulated by the Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics (SPH) method and associated trajectory analysis in a Monte Carlo manner, taking sterilization by hypervelocity impacts and cosmic radiation into consideration, to obtain a statistical estimate of the microbial density survived on the current surface of the Martian moons. The potential number of microorganisms transferred to Earth through the same processes was estimated as well.

Biography:

Prof.Kazuhisa Fujita got a Ph.D. at Graduate School of the University of Tokyo in 1995. Then he became a research associate at the Institute of Space and Astronautical Science, and was engaged upon fundamental researches on nonequilibrium aerothermodynamics, radiation, rarefied gasdynamics, and plasma dynamics associated with planetary entry vehicles. He moved to Research & Development Directorate, the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA) in 2003. He has been a visiting professor at Graduated School of University of Tokyo since 2013, and a professor at the Institute of Space and Astronautical Science, JAXA since 2018. His group is engaged in technology development for planetary exploration, such as atmospheric entry system, aeroassist guidance, and planetary landing. In this context, his group has been actively conducting planetary protection and astrobiology researches for Mars exploration in recent years.

  • University of Pernambuco, Brazil
  • Title:Metronidazole and Amoxicillin Association in Aggressive Periodontitis: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis
  • Time :

Abstract:

The aim of this systematic review and meta-analysis was to evaluate the effects of metronidazole and amoxicillin in combination with mechanical therapy for the treatment of aggressive periodontitis. This study was conducted according to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses guidelines and was registered in the International Prospective Record of Systematic Reviews (CRD42018111595). The research was performed using PubMed/MEDLINE, Web of Science, Scopus, and Cochrane Library databases till December 2019 and included randomized clinical trials that analyzed whether the use of systemic metronidazole and amoxicillin improved the treatment response in patients with aggressive periodontitis. Altogether, 137 articles were identified and 4 studies were selected after applying the inclusion and the exclusion criteria. No statistically significant difference was observed in the clinical attachment level between the use of systemic antibiotics combined with scaling and root planning (SRP) and SRP without antibiotics (p = 0.52, mean deviation [MD]: 0.21, 95% confidence interval [CI]: -0.04–0.46). There was a statistically significant difference in the probing depth between the use of systemic antibiotics with SRP and the use of SRP alone (p = 0.02, MD: 0.40, 95% CI: 0.02–0.78). Gain in the clinical attachment level was not significantly higher when systemic antibiotics were used with SRP compared to SRP without antibiotics in the treatment of aggressive periodontitis. However, a statistically significant difference was observed in reduction in the probing depth.

Biography:

Dr.Cacio Lopes Mendes ,PhD student in Dentistry/Endodontics, University of Pernambuco FOP/UPE. Master in Dental Radiology and Imaging from the Faculty of Dentistry São Leopoldo Mandic (2016). Graduated in Dentistry from Universidade Salgado de Oliveira (2002) and specialized in Periodontics from SCDP/ABO-PE (2006) and in Dental Radiology and Imaging from Faculdade de Odontologia São Leopoldo Mandic. Academic Coordinator of the Dentistry Course at UNIFAVIP-Caruaru. Professor of the disciplines of Periodontics and Supervised Internship in Periodontics at the University Center of Faculdade Escritor Osman Lins (UniFACOL). Professor of Imaging, Pre-clinical Periodontics and Clinical Periodontics at Centro Universitário UniFBV – Recife.

  • University of Grenoble Alpes, France
  • Title:Variable Natural Cycles of Francisella tularensis Account for the Polymorphic Clinical and Epidemiological Aspects of Tularemia in Europe
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Abstract:

Francisella tularensis is a Gram-negative bacterium causing the zoonosis tularemia. This highly virulent pathogen belongs to the class A biological threat agents of the CDC (USA). Tularemia may manifest by chronic regional lymphadenopathy usually associated with specific lesions at the bacterial inoculation site (e.g., skin ulcer, conjunctivitis, pharyngitis). Pneumonia (acute or tuberculosis-like chronic infections) and a pseudo-typhoid infection are two systemic, often life-threatening diseases. Classically, F. tularensis can infect a large number of animal species, although lagomorphs and small rodents are the primary sources of human infections. Tularemia is also a tick-borne disease, since many Ixodidae species can transmit the bacterium to humans and animals. Amazingly, this disease is primarily transmitted through mosquito bites in some Scandinavian areas. Finally, F. tularensis can survive for prolonged periods in the hydrotelluric environment. In some countries, tularemia is mainly a water-borne disease. The natural cycle of F. tularensis greatly vary between geographic areas, accounting for remarkable variations in the clinical and epidemiological aspects of tularemia in different countries.

Biography:

Dr.Max Maurin, 58 years old, is Professor of Bacteriology at Grenoble Alps University hopital since 2002. He has been trained (MD, PhD) in Prof. Didier Raoult clinical microbiology department (URMITE, Marseille, France). His main research topic deals with diagnosis and treatment of zoonotic diseases. Since 2006, he has been specifically involved in the field of tularemia and other Francisella-related diseases, as the Scientific director of the French National Reference Center for tularemia. His fields of expertise include: bacteriology, cell biology, molecular biology, antibiotic susceptibility testing, bacterial resistance to antibiotics, and drug development. He has published more than 150 articles in peer-reviewed journals, more than 50 book chapters, and is a co-inventor of 6 patents. He is currently a co-chief editor of the Clinical Microbiology section of Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology.

  • University of Calgary, Canada
  • Title:What Does an Infectious Diseases Doctor Need to Know About Castleman Disease? A Case Report and Update and New Treatment Approaches for Multicentric Castleman Disease
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Abstract:

Background: Castleman disease comprises a rare and heterogeneous cluster of disorders, characterized by lymphadenopathy with unique histological features and associated with cytokine-driven constitutional symptoms and biochemical disturbances. Unicentric CD (UCD) is curable with complete surgical excision, but its multicentric counterpart (MCD) is a diagnostic and therapeutic challenge. Monoclonal antibodies to interleukin-6 and its receptor allow more targeted disease-specific intervention. The incidence of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) HHV-8 associated MCD is increasing. Because MCD presents often as a diagnostic dilemma in a systemically unwell individual, familiarity with MCD and its treatment are of benefit to infectious diseases subspecialists.

Objectives: We will review a challenging pediatric MCD case, present diagnostic workup and discuss current treatment approaches.
Case: A 14-year old boy developed chest pain, abdominal pain, shortness of breath and nausea. He was thought to have viral pericarditis and received colchicine with no benefit. He subsequently developed intermittent fevers, night sweats and increase in abdominal girth. Physical examination revealed moderate ascites, peripheral edema, lymphadenopathy and hepatosplenomegaly. His blood work showed elevation in inflammatory markers (CRP 258 mg/L, ESR 48 mm/hr), D-Dimer (> 10mg/L FEU), liver enzymes and creatinine. His hemoglobin was 80, platelets normal throughout, and his WBC fluxuated. His infectious workup was negative (EBV, CMV, Hepatitis, HIV, HTLV, Brucella, coxiella, parvovirus, mycoplasma, stronglyloides, schistosomaiasis, HHV8, TB). He developed features consistent with macrophage activation syndrome (MAS), and was initially treated with IVIG and IV methylprednisolone. He underwent lymphnode biopsy which was consistent with MCD. His chest and abdominal CT was negative for a malignancy.

Results: Once MCD was confirmed, he received Tocilizumab (IL -6 blocker). He had no response and Anakinra, an IL-1 blocker, was added with some improvement. Eventually, IL-6 receptor antagonist, Siltuximab was added, and other biologics were discontinued. After siltuximab, his, inflammatory markers and renal failure improved but his ascites persisted and he was eventually diagnosed with MCD related portal hypertension.

Conclusion: MCD is a serious condition, and should be considered in patients who present with multisystem disease with fever of unknown origin. In the presence of lymphadenopathy, a biopsy should be considered. Treatment can be challenging, and current guidelines suggest IL-6-blockade as the first line approach. However, patients may have various response rates to individual anti-IL-6 therapy and may require additional immunosuppressive therapy. It is important to investigate for infectious, malignant and autoimmune conditions, as MCD can be associated with each of these disease processes.

Biography:

Dr. Paivi Miettunen is a paediatric rheumatologist at Alberta Children’s Hospital, and an associate professor at the Cumming’s School of Medicine, University of Calgary, Calgary, AB, Canada. She has been involved in local, national and international research focused on bone health in pediatric leukemia (osteonecrosis), treatment and imaging of chronic recurrent multifocal osteomyelitis (CRMO), and treatment of macrophage activation syndrome (MAS).
She is a part of EURO-FEVER, an international research network for rare autoinflammatory diseases. She has published widely on autoinflammatory conditions (MAS, CRMO, periodic fevers) and has lectured internationally on these diseases.

  • Kyoto University, Japan
  • Title:Schwann Cell-Derived CXCL1 Contributes to Human Immunodeficiency Virus type 1 gp120-induced Neuropathic Pain by Modulating Macrophage Infiltration in Mice
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Abstract:

The neuroinflammatory responses to human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) coat proteins such as glycoprotein 120 (gp120) are considered to be responsible for HIV-associated distal sensory neuropathy. Accumulating evidence suggests that T-cell line tropic X4 gp120 increases macrophage infiltration into the peripheral nerves, and thereby induces neuroinflammation leading to pain. However, the mechanisms underlying X4 gp120-induced macrophage recruitment to the peripheral nervous systems remain unclear. We demonstrated that perineural application of X4 gp120 from HIV-120 strains IIIB and MN elicited mechanical hypersensitivity and spontaneous pain-like behaviors in mice. Furthermore, flow cytometry and immunohistochemical studies revealed increased infiltration of bone marrow-derived macrophages into the parenchyma of sciatic nerves and dorsal root ganglia (DRG) 7 days after gp120 IIIB or MN application. Chemical deletion of circulating macrophages using clodronate liposomes markedly suppressed gp120 IIIB-induced pain-like behaviors. In in vitro cell infiltration analysis, RAW 264.7 cell (a murine macrophage cell line) was chemoattracted to conditioned medium from gp120 IIIB-or MN treated cultured Schwann cells, but not to conditioned medium from these gp120-treated DRG neurons, suggesting the possible involvement of Schwann cell-derived soluble factors in macrophage infiltration. We identified using a gene expression array that CXCL1, a chemoattractant of macrophages and neutrophils, was increased in gp120 IIIB treated Schwann cells. Similar to gp120 IIIB or MN, peripheral neural application of recombinant CXCL1 elicited pain-like behaviors accompanied by macrophage infiltration to the peripheral nerves. Furthermore ,the repeated injection of CXCR2 (receptor for CXCL1) antagonist or CXCL1 neutralizing antibody prevented both pain-like behaviors and macrophage infiltration in gp120 IIIB treated mice. Thus, our findings newly define that Schwann cell-derived CXCL1, secreted in response to X4 gp120 IIIB exposure ,is responsible for macrophage infiltration into peripheral nerves ,and is thereby associated with pain-like behaviors in mice. We propose that communication between Schwann cells and macrophages may play a prominent role in the induction of X4 HIV-1-associated pain.

Biography:

Dr.Mpumelelo Ntogwa, PhD in Clinical pharmacology and therapeutics, Kyoto University Japan. Master of Science (Msc) in Clinical pharmacology and therapeutics, Kyoto University Japan (2018). Graduated with a Bachelor of Pharmacy from University of Havana, Cuba (2008). Has 6 years working experience as a hospital pharmacist at Mahalapye District Hospital, Botswana (2009-2015). His interests in HIV-associated pain was triggered by previous experiences working with HIV patients who regularly experienced a debilitating type of pain in their hands and feet which turned out to be HIV-induced Distal Sensory Neuropathy (HIV DSN). He has spent the past 6 years trying to uncover the mechanisms underlying this condition.

  • King Saud bin Abdulaziz University for Health Sciences, Saudi Arabia
  • Title:The Incidence of Ventilator-Associated Pneumonia (VAP) in a Tertiary-Care Center: Comparison between Pre- and Post-VAP Prevention Bundle
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Abstract:

Introduction: Ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) is a nosocomial infection that develops 48h after the initiation of mechanical ventilatory support. Current evidence-based guidelines demonstrate that VAP prevention is feasible through the implementation of certain VAP prevention bundle of interventions simultaneously. We aimed in this study to investigate the effect of VAP prevention pre- and post-implementation.
Methods: This is a single-center, cohort study that took place at the Pediatric Intensive Care Unit (PICU) of King Abdulaziz Medical City (KAMC), Jeddah, Saudi Arabia from January 2015 to March 2018 and assessed the rate of VAP before and after implementation of the bundle.
Results: The study included 141 children, 95 were included from the pre-bundle group and 36 from the bundle group. VAP developed in 35% of the pre-bundle group compared to 31% of the bundle group (p = 0.651) with incidence rates equaled to 18 and 12 per 1000 ventilator days, respectively.
Conclusion: This study found that VAP bundle did not significantly reduce VAP rate in the PICU. Further large prospective multi-center studies with longer intervention duration are indicated to investigate the benefits of using VAP prevention bundle

Biography:

Dr.Yousef M. Al Talhi is a medical alumnus of King Saud bin Abdulaziz University for Health Sciences and is affiliated to King Abdullah International Medical Research Center, Saudi Arabia. His biostatistical and research skills are acknowledged by many research experts in both institutions. He participated in multiple research courses under the umbrella of British Medical Journal and Stanford University. He presented and published original articles on international level. Yousef is always eager to learn more about medical research and make exemplary changes in medical practice.

  • Llanos University ,Columbia
  • Title:Immunogenicity and Protection for Mice and Canines Induced by Recombinant Toxocara canis Proteins
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Abstract:

Toxocara canis is the helminth agent of toxocariasis, whose definitive hosts are canines, but it affects humans and other mammals as paratenic hosts, causing multiple clinical pictures, and occurs worldwide, predominating in tropical and developing countries. There is a need for the development of vaccines to prevent this infection. Thus, in this study it was possible to identify by in silico analyses, several potential T. canis proteins for the development of a canine vaccine. After expression in procaryote systems of three molecules (rTcCad, rTcVcan, rTcCyst), they were purified and tested in a murine model of toxocariasis using C57BL/6 female mice; the mice were immunized with each or with combinations of the recombinant antigens, prior to challenge with 500 T. canis embryonated eggs. It was evaluated the production of anti-T. canis IgA, IgE, IgG (IgG1-IgG2a), as well as the in-vitro production of cytokines such as IL-5, INF-g and IL-10 by spleen cells. The groups vaccinated with the rTcCad and rTcVcan molecules generated a mixed Th1/Th2 immune response. In relation to the migration of larvae in different tissues, vaccination with rTcCad and rTcVcan with CFA reduced larval loads in mice exposed to T. canis by 54.3% and 53.9% (p <0.0001), respectively, compared to non-immunized controls. The best proteins were then evaluated using different adjuvants. When QuilA® was added as adjuvant to rTVcan, protection against larval migration increased markedly to 73.2% (p<0.0001). In canines, this vaccine formulation (rTcVcan+QuilA®) generated a significant reduction (70-90%) in the parasite load according to the egg counting in feces (p<0.0001), a significant reduction (50-60%) in eggs extracted from the uterus of pharmacologically expelled T. canis females (p<0.001) and a mixed Th1/Th2 response of cytokines produced by PBMC. Concluding, the mixed Th1/Th2 response of cytokines with an adequate level of antibodies (IgG) promoted significant protection of canines against toxocariasis under controlled laboratory conditions. From our knowledge, this is the first clinical trial in the World of a vaccine using T. canis recombinant proteins. It has shown promising results in the control of canine toxocariasis, which may impact animal health and the public health by controlling canine infection and indirectly of human toxocariasis.

  • Evandro Chagas Institute, Brazil
  • Title:Study of TNF-α, IFN-γ, TGF-β, IL-6, and IL-10 Gene Polymorphism in Individuals from the leprosy Endemic Area in the Brazilian Amazon
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Abstract:

This study aimed to verify the relationship between the polymorphisms of the cytokines TNF-α rs1800629; IFN-γ rs2430561; TGF-β rs1982073 e rs1800471; IL-6 rs180079 e IL-10 rs1800896, rs1800871 and rs1800872 and leprosy. Blood samples were analyzed from 106 individuals, of whom 24 were paucibacillary (PB), 28 were multibacillary (MB), 32 intradomiciliary consanguineal contacts of patients (CCOSI) and 22 intradomiciliary non-consanguineal contacts of patients (CNCOSI). Analysis of cytokine polymorphisms typified by the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) technique. For TGFβ, a tendency to associate the presence of the C allele at rs1982073 with leprosy was demonstrated, with the T allele being most frequently found in the CCOSI (p = .056). For the polymorphisms IL-10 we found an association of the GCC/GCC genotype with the susceptibility to the disease and the A-allele rs1800896 with the leprosy protection. Greater predominance was found of ACC / ATA (31.3%) and GCC / ATA (37.5%) (p =.03) and the A-allele rs1800896 (76.85%) (p =.043) in the CCOSI groups, while the GCC/GCC was found in the MB group (22.2%) (p=.05). For the other cytokines’s SNPs there were no associations with susceptibility to leprosy. These results are limited by sample size, may not be conclusive and will need further confirmation in a larger cohort.

Biography:

Dr.Everaldina Cordeiro dos Santos, Brasileira, natural de Belém-PA. Biomedical, graduated from the Federal University of Pará in 1997, a federal public servant of the Ministry of Health, Institute Evandro Chagas, working in the bacteriology section of the molecular biology laboratory with an emphasis on leprosy. Specialist in Aesthetic Biomedicine, Master in Health Surveillance and Epidemiology by the PPGVS program of the Evandro Chagas Institute and entering the doctorate at the State University of Pará.

  • Myongji Medical Foundation , Korea
  • Title:Providing Essential Clinical Care for Non-COVID-19 Patients in a Seoul Metropolitan Acute Care Hospital Amidst Ongoing Treatment of COVID-19 Patients
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Abstract:

In the advent of the COVID-19 outbreak in Korea, Myongji Hospital adopted a dual-track healthcare system to provide continuity of care for its patients while managing referred COVID-19 patients simultaneously. We assessed infection control efforts by comparing data collected over 20 weeks during a pandemic under a dual-track healthcare system. A decline in non-COVID-19 patients visiting the emergency department by 37.6% (P<0.01) was observed since admitting COVID-19 cases. However, patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI), stroke, severe trauma and acute appendicitis presenting for emergency care did not decrease. Door-to-balloon time for AMI improved significantly while door-to-needle time in stroke management remained steady. Simultaneously, time-sensitive care involving other clinical services, including patients requiring chemotherapy, radiation therapy and haemodialysis did not change. During this presentation, Dr. Lee will discuss the keys to successfully operating a dual-track healthcare system amidst ongoing COVID-19 pandemic.                                                                                                                                                                                                             Biography:

Dr. Wangjun Lee is one of the most influential person in the Korean healthcare sector. He is chairman and CEO of Myongji Medical Foundation, and running two more acute care hospitals and 3 long-term care(LTC) facilities. Also, he is CEO of Korea’s most influential healthcare news & publishing company, ‘The Korean Doctors’ Weekly’, founded in 1992. He is one of the leading NGO activists in the medical aid area for migrant workers in Korea, and now serves as vice chairman of the Migrant Health Association in Korea. As an Executive Chairman of international affairs of the Korean Hospital Association, he is in charge of general secretary of the Korea Healthcare Congress, which is the top healthcare related annual congress in Asia. He is also a CEO and Chairman of very venturous biotech company ‘CancerROP’ that is listed in KOSDAQ market, along with a cell therapy company ‘MJ CellBio’. Dr. Lee graduated from Seoul National University, College of Medicine. He achieved board of surgery in Seoul National University Hospital. He was awarded a Ph.D. degree from the same University.

  • Indiana University ,USA
  • Title:Droplet and Aerosol Generation from Otolaryngologic Procedures: Surgical Risk in the Pandemic Era
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Abstract:

Purpose: The COVID-19 pandemic has led to concerns over transmission risk from healthcare procedures, especially in head and neck procedures including endonasal, otologic, and facial surgery as well as in-office flexible laryngoscopy. It has also uncovered a critical lack of knowledge in the potential for droplet and aerosol generation due to these procedures. In order to help close this, a series of studies was performed in cadavers and live patients in order to quantify droplet and aerosol generation.
Materials and Methods: Cadaveric surgical sites were impregnated with a 0.1% fluorescein solution. Procedures performed include endoscopic sinus surgery, mastoidectomy, facial fracture repair, and rhinoplasty. Droplets were recorded against an impermeable blue background under ultraviolet-A (UV-A) light. Aerosol generation was measured using an optical particle sizer and a variety of suction devices were trialed for aerosol mitigation. Aerosol generation was measured alone in live patients during tympanostomy and myringotomy tube insertion and flexible laryngoscopy.
Results: Visible droplet contamination was observed following mastoid, endonasal, and orbital drilling but not after mandible fixation and rhinoplasty. Aerosol generation was associated with electrocautery use and drilling with powered burrs (p<0.05). This was successfully mitigated using suction devices including smoke-evacuating electrocautery handpieces and attachable systems (p<0.05). In live patients, tympanostomy and myringotomy tube insertion and flexible laryngoscopy did not elevate aerosol counts to above the threshold of detection (p>0.10) compared to the positive controls (p<0.05). Conclusions: Nosocomial viral spread from droplet and aerosol generation is a risk of several head and neck procedures including endonasal, otologic, and facial surgery. Aerosol generation was highest during electrocautery use and drilling with powered burrs. Suction devices were effective in mitigating the increase in airborne particles where tested. Key procedures including tympanostomy and myringotomy tube insertion and flexible laryngoscopy in live patients did not result in aerosol generation above the level of detection, suggesting that there may be a role for diversion of viral mitigation resources toward areas of higher risk. Biography:

Dr.Michael J.Ye, MD is a fourth-year resident with the Indiana University School of Medicine Department of Otolaryngology—Head and Neck Surgery. He received his undergraduate education at Northwestern University in Evanston, Illinois and his medical degree at the Indiana University School of Medicine in Indianapolis, Indiana. As a provider, he is passionate about serving the community he grew up in by treating the whole scope of head and neck pathologies. His broad research pursuits include advancing surgical safety, patient outcomes, patient education, and basic science in the field of otolaryngology. In his free time, he enjoys playing music, dance, cooking, and fitness.

  • University of Veterinary and Animal Sciences ,Pakistan
  • Title:Effects of Different Mating Strategies and Housing Systems in Broiler Breeder During Peak and Post Peak Phase on Subsequent Broiler Performance
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Abstract:

Two experimental trials on commercial broiler (Ross-308) were conducted to evaluate the
carryover effects of artificial insemination (AI) in parent flock (PF) kept in cages (C), and on floor (F) in comparison to natural mating (NM) in floored PF. A total of 900 broiler chicks were obtained from 38-week-old PF (peak production), representing C, F, and NM evenly during first trial, whereas in second trial, similar number of broiler chicks were obtained from same PF during post peak phase (55 week of age). Subsequent effects of AI and NM in PF were evaluated by bacteriology, post hatch mortality, growth performance, immune response, and carcass traits on experimental birds. Chicks being produced through NM exhibited significantly (P ≤ 0.05) improved growth performance i.e., feed conversion ratio, weight gain, European efficiency factor along with the least (P ≤ 0.05) post hatch mortality and prevalence of Escherichia coli (E.coli), Salmonella Pullorum (SP), and Mycoplasma gallisepticum (MG) tested on 0,15 and 30th days of age . Moreover, the experimental chicks obtained from floored PF subjected to AI particularly during post peak phase expressed the highest (P ≤ 0.05) contamination of the said pathogens along with post hatch mortality. Perhaps, immune response against New Castle disease and infectious bronchitis vaccines and slaughtering parameters remained nonsignificant (P > 0.05) among the 3 treatments under both trials. Thus, it is concluded that the best growth performance along with the least depletion and microbial load of concerned pathogens were being pertained by the experimental broiler birds representing NM.

Biography:
Dr.Muhammad Shabir Shaheen (DVM, Mphil, PhD) is a Member of National Disease control committee (NDCC) of Pakistan Poultry Association (PPA) 2016 to Now , Lecturer, Department of Poultry Production, University of Veterinary and Animal Sciences, Out Fall Road Lahore (April 11, 2016 to date), Deputy district officer Live stock (Poultry), March 2013 to April 2016, Veterinary office poultry & Regional surveillance officer (Bird flu project), December 24,2008
to 2013, Assistant production manager, Hi-Tech poultry breeding company (PVT.LTD) from 2000-2008

  • GC Women University Sialkot, Pakistan
  • Title:Antibacterial Activity of Extract Formulations of Tachyspermum ammi, Amomum subulatum and Cinnamomum verum
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Abstract:

Emergence of antimicrobial resistance worldwide is responsible for alarming situation. There is an urgent need to discover more effective, safer and less toxic antibacterial agents. Medicinal plants are valuable alternative resources for developing novel drugs. In the present study hexane and acetone extracts of Tachyspermum ammi seeds, Amomum subulatum fruit and Cinnamomum verum bark, independently and in combinations were used to evaluate invitro antibacterial efficacies against four clinical bacterial strains such as E. coli, S. aureus, P. aeruginosa and S. epidermidis. Antibacterial activity of various combinations of these three plant extracts reported for the first time in order to determine synergistic potential and pharmacological interactions. Ciprofloxacin served as positive control antibiotic. Zone of inhibitions of plant extracts was compared with standard antibiotic ciprofloxacin. Our findings reported that clinical strains E. coli and S. aureus that were completely resistant to Ciprofloxacin showed tremendous susceptibility towards separate and combined plant extracts. Most susceptible strain towards plant extracts was S. aureus followed by E. coli, S. epidermidis and P. aeruginosa. Most resistant strain towards plant extracts was P. aeruginosa. It was noted that prominent synergism occurred in most of the combined plant extracts highlighting medical importance for combating infections caused by multidrug resistant bacteria. Current study clearly suggests that various combinations of these three plant extracts could be used as potential natural resources in order to develop promising antibiotic for treating various infections.

Biography:

Dr. Asma Waheed Qureshi has completed her PhD from University of The Punjab, Pakistan in Zoology. Currently she is working as Associate Professor and Head of The Department of Zoology, GC Women University Sialkot, Pakistan. She is also supervising PhD and MS research Scholars and more than 15 MS scholars has completed their degree under her supervision. She has also published more than 25 research articles in reputed journals and presented papers in national and international conferences. Her research focus are parasites and bacterial pathogens of animals and humans.

  • Cleveland Clinic, USA
  • Title:Managing Cystic Fibrosis Related Diabetes via Telehealth During COVID-19 Pandemic
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Abstract:

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) was declared a pandemic on March 11, 2020. In efforts to reduce the risk of transmission, telehealth visits for routine care has significantly increased in the United States. Cystic fibrosis patients have been categorized as a highly vulnerable population to COVID-19 infection. Cystic Fibrosis centers are rapidly assessing and responding to the pandemic to ensure the safety of CF patients. At our Cleveland Clinic Cystic Fibrosis center, we transitioned outpatient clinics to a virtual care model in March 2020. The objectives of my presentation will include 1) the pathophysiology of COVID-19 in CF and 2) the strategies that were implemented at our Cleveland Clinic CF Center for outpatient management of CFRD through telehealth during the COVID-19 crisis

Biography:

Dr.Sana Hasan received her medical degree from Ohio University Heritage College of Osteopathic Medicine in 2008. All throughout her four years of medical school, she was the recipient of Jerry A. Zinni scholarship. She continued her post graduate training at Summa, Akron City Hospital with a residency in Internal Medicine. Her interest in research and endocrinology enabled her to pursue a three-year research fellowship in Endocrinology and Metabolism at University of Nebraska Medical Center in Omaha, NE. Her research study on the effects of All-trans Retinoic acid in obesity related type 2 diabetes was well recognized, leading to early career travel awards at the 95th annual Endocrine Society meeting in 2013 as well as 74th American Diabetes Association meeting in 2014. Her academic achievements throughout her fellowship led to her appointment as a Clinical Instructor at University of Nebraska Medical Center in 2014. She was honored to present her work on All-trans Retinoic acid on weight, glucose homeostasis and white adipose tissue internationally, initially at 22nd European Congress on Obesity in Prague, Czech Republic in 2015, followed by the European Association for the Study of Diabetes 51st Annual meeting in Stockholm, Sweden, later that year. She served as co-investigator on a registry maintaining online database for complex causes of diabetes, its complications and their relationship to post transplant diabetes, hearing loss and pancreatic cancer. Dr. Hasan’s strong academic and research background led to her appointment as a Clinical Assistant Professor at Cleveland Clinic Lerner College of Medicine as well as an Associate Staff for the Endocrinology and Metabolism Institute in late, 2015. She remains an active faculty member with the Endocrinology fellowship program at Cleveland Clinic with multiple poster presentations at national society meetings. She assumed the role of the Director of the South Region with the Endocrinology and Metabolism Institute in 2019. She was subsequently awarded an EnVision grant for her role as a primary investigator in her study of optimizing glycemic control in Cystic fibrosis related diabetes.

  • Austral University of Chile, Chile
  • Title:Characterization and Expression Analysis of Inflammasome Genes (NLRC3 and NLRC5) Against an Infection with Piscirickettsia salmonis in Atlantic Salmon
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Abstract:

The nucleotide binding oligomerization domain like receptors, or NOD like receptors (NLRs 3 &5), are intracellular receptors responsible for recognizing pathogens in vertebrates. Several NLR mammalian models have been characterized and analyzed but few studies have been performed with teleost species. In this study, we analyzed the nucleotide sequence of six mRNA variants of NLRC3 and NLCRC5 in Atlantic salmon (SsNLRC3), and we deduced the amino acid sequence coding for two different isoforms with a total length of 1135 amino acids and 1093 amino acids. We analyzed the phylogeny of all variants, including a Piscirickettsia salmonis infection in Atlantic salmon. All variants and their expression pattern during infection were analyzed using real-time qPCR. One of the analyzed variants was over-expressed during the early stages of Piscirickettsia salmonis infection, and we were able to identify two different SsNLRC3 isoforms. Lastly, we observed that the pathogen recognition of Piscirickettsia salmonis intracellular infecction can directly modulate inflamasome.

Biography:

Dr.Alejandro Yanez is a full professor at the Universidad Austral de Chile. Participate as researcher in FONDAP INCAR. He did his doctoral research at UMKC University, USA. He has published more than 100 research articles, book chapters.

  • Rene Rachou Institute , Brazil
  • Title:Design and Production of Dengue Virus Chimeric Proteins Sseful for Developing Tetravalent Vaccines
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Abstract:

Currently, there is no specific treatment or efficient vaccines against the Dengue virus (DENV). We designed and produced chimeric proteins composed by immunogenic epitopes from the four DENV serotypes to develop a tetravalent dengue vaccine. For this, South American DENV isolate amino acid sequences submitted to several in silico analysis and regions of the envelope and NS1 proteins that are highly homologous among the four DENV serotypes, non-conserved antigenic regions and the most antigenic epitopes found in the C, prM, E and NS1 DENV proteins were used to construct 11 chimeric peptides. Genes encoding the chimeric proteins were synthesized, and proteins were produced and further subjected to ELISA assays using sera from individuals infected with DENVs 1, 2, 3 or 4. One chimeric protein (EnvEpII) was selected to immunize BALB/c and C57BL/6 mice strains. The immunization with EnvEpII protein induced an increased number of T CD4+ and CD8+ cells, high production of IgG1 and IgG2 antibodies, and increased levels of IL-2 and IL-17 cytokines, in both mouse strains. Although further experiments are required, our results indicate that epitope selection by bioinformatic tools is efficient to create recombinant chimeric proteins that can be used as candidates for the development of vaccines against dengue.

Biography:

Dr.Carlos Eduardo Calzavara-Silva, PhD in Biochemistry and Immunology from the Federal University of Minas Gerais. Works as a Public Health Technologist at the Rene Rachou Research Institute, an unit of the Oswaldo Cruz Research Foundation (Fiocruz Minas) and Leader of the Research Group on Cellular and Molecular Immunology at Fiocruz. Has experience in the areas of Biochemistry and Immunology, with an emphasis on molecular biology. Currently works on projects involving basic and molecular virology, alternative strategies for vaccine development and diagnosis for arboviruses, dengue immunopathogenesis and nanotechnology applied to cancer and viruses of interest.

  • Gothenburg University , Sweden
  • Title:Prevalence of Latent TB and Effectiveness of BCG Vaccination Against Latent Tuberculosis: An Observational Study
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Abstract:

Objectives: The aims of the present study were to determine the prevalence of LTBI in immigrant children and adolescents (0-17 years) living in or recently coming to Sweden and to estimate the effectiveness of BCG against latent TB (LTBI) in immigrant children coming to Sweden from high-incidence countries, most of them asylum seekers. LTBI was defined as positive Quantiferon or in small children from whom it was difficult to get 3 mL of blood as a tuberculin skin test (TST) of ≥ 10 mm.
Design: As a substitute for written documentation of BCG vaccination a typical BCG scar was used. The study comprised 1,404 immigrants aged 0-17 years. The arms and legs of all of them were inspected for a BCG scar and Quantiferon or TST was performed. The study was a retrospective, observational, comparative cohort study.
Results: Apart from the 1,532 patient records which were reviewed another 301 immigrants were offered a health examination during the same time period but they did not come to the out-patient clinic, despite a reminder, so 16 % of all immigrant children were never tested for LTBI. LTBI was found in 123 of 1011 (12%) children with a BCG scar and in 116 of 393 (29.5 %) without a BCG scar giving an estimated vaccine effectiveness of 59 %.
Conclusions: LTBI is common among immigrant children (17 %). LTBI can progress to active TB and will then spread in the immigrant population and to the general population if all arrivals are not tested and given prophylactic treatment if they have LTBI. The BCG vaccine has a significant effect on LTBI (59 %).

Biography:

Dr.Birger Trollfors graduated as an MD in 1974 at the University of Gothenburg, Sweden. During the first 10 years he worked as an infectious Disease specialist, participated in a diploma course in Tropical Medicine and Parasitology at the Brnhard-Nocht Institute, Hamburg Germany and worked for 2 years at the National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD, USA. After that he led a double-blind placebo-controlled tral of an acellular pertussis vaccine. Thereafter he educated himself to be a specialist in Pediatrics and worked through the rest of his professional life as a pediatrician at Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Gothenburg, Sweden (both with pediatrics ibfectious diseases and a general pediatrician): He has published > 200 scientific articles in peer-reviewed international journals, mainly about Haemophilus influenzae type b, invasive pneumococcal infetions, invasive infections in neonates, neuroborreliosis and tuberculosis. He has after his retirement continued to work half-time as a pediatrician.

  • Texas Tech University, USA
  • Title:Microbial Biofilm May Contribute to Alzheimer's Disease
  • Time :

Abstract:

The European Infectious Disease Society’s subcommittee on biofilm in 2014 concluded that microbes (bacterial and fungal) growing as biofilm cause chronic infections. Chronic infections are becoming an overwhelming drain on health care resources because chronic infections are increasing exponentially and our ability to adequately manage chronic infections is lacking. Acute infections are caused primarily by planktonic (single cell) microbes and respond to relatively low dose single agent antibiotic regimens. The microbes that form a biofilm community are polymicrobial, act cooperatively (synergy), develop colony defenses (self-secreted matrix, quorum sensing, anoxic core) by up regulating usually one third of its genome dedicated to biofilm structure and function. Biofilms are tolerant of host immunity and usual antimicrobial treatment regimens. In the host, biofilms produce a parasitic infection associated with persistent inflammation. The persistent inflammation of biofilm infection is evidenced by excessive senescent neutrophils and macrophages along with excessive inflammatory cytokines (interleukin’s, interferons, TNF alpha) which are adequate to induce antimicrobial peptides. Amyloid beta, is one such antimicrobial peptide, which in elevated concentrations is well documented to seed and then developed fibrils which eventually leads to a steady state amyloid plaque. The amyloid cascade leading to amyloid plaques and neurofibrillary tangles may be the direct downstream effect of biofilm infection. Biofilm structures have been identified on heart valves and in atherosclerotic plaques demonstrating biofilm’s ability to infect intravascular structures. Deceased patients with Alzheimer’s disease have been shown to have increased amounts of bacterial DNA in their brain substance. Bacteria is present in the brains of patients with Alzheimer’s disease and that bacteria producing a biofilm infection offers a viable explanation for the pathogenesis of Alzheimer’s disease.

Biography:

Dr. Randall D. Wolcott has been a wound care provider for over 25 years and is the Founder of the Southwest Regional Wound Care Center in Lubbock Texas. He has been the Principal Investigator on multiple studies and was part of an NIH grant with the Center for Biofilm Engineering at Montana State. Dr. Wolcott has numerous publications focusing on biofilm in wounds and other diseases such as atherosclerosis, cystic fibrosis, catheter related blood stream infections and amyloid disease such as Alzheimer’s disease.

  • The Nature Conservancy Center, India
  • Title:Preventing the Next Global Pandemic Requires the Halt of Wildlife Trade
  • Time :

Abstract:

The suspected origin of the COVID pandemic in wildlife wet market has resurfaced debates on the role of wildlife trade as a potential source of emerging zoonotic diseases. At present, there are no studies quantitatively assessing zoonotic disease risk associated with wildlife trade and the potential of wildlife trade to drive future pandemics. Combining data of mammal species hosting zoonotic viruses and data on mammals known to be in current and future wildlife trade, we find that one-quarter (26.5%) of the mammals in wildlife trade harbor three quarter (~75%) of known zoonotic viruses, at levels much higher than domesticated and non-traded mammals. The traded mammals also harbor distinct composition of zoonotic viruses and different host reservoirs than non-traded and domesticated mammals. Furthermore, we highlight that species of primates, ungulates, carnivores, rodents, and bats represent significant zoonotic diseases risk as they host over 58% of known zoonotic viruses in present wildlife trade. Whereas species of bats, rodents, and marsupials represent significant zoonotic diseases risk in future wildlife trade. Thus, the risk of carrying zoonotic diseases is not equal for all mammal species in wildlife trade. Overall, our findings strengthen the evidence that wildlife trade and zoonotic disease risks are strongly associated and that mitigation measures should prioritize species with the highest risk of carrying zoonotic viruses. Curbing the sales of wildlife products and developing principles that support the sustainable and healthy trade of wildlife could be a cost-effective investment given the potential risk and consequences of zoonotic outbreaks.

Biography:

Dr.K. Nagaraju Shivaprakash is a senior applied scientist for The Nature Conservancy (TNC), India. In this capacity he oversees science, conservation planning and implementation across all the conservation projects TNC work on throughout the country. He has obtained his PhD in Biology from Concordia University, Montreal, Canada with specialization in macroecology and biogeography. In TNC, his core research interest is in applied conservation with main focus on tropical forest restoration, human-wildlife conflict, biodiversity, and human health. Apart from this, he also pursues research in plant biogeography, large scale biodiversity patterns, and assessment of biodiversity and ecosystem services. One of his key research areas focuses on integrating multiple components of biodiversity such as taxonomic, functional, and evolutionary diversity to identify key biodiversity areas which preserves high species diversity as well as providing maximum ecosystem services.
He has published over 14 research articles on topics ranging from conservation of NTFP forest genetic resources, wildlife conservation, biogeography, vegetation ecology, plant evolution and invasion ecology, and zoonotic diseases ecology.

  • Institute of Biotechnology, Czech Republic
  • Title:Development of HIV-1 Env Epitopes-Mimicking Protein Binders Targeted to Broadly Neutralizing Antibodies as Potential Vaccine Component
  • Time :

Abstract:

Neutralizing epitopes of surface glycoproteins are poorly immunogenic and carbohydrates-based immunogens are generally less effective in generation of long-lasting antibody responses. Therefore, proteins mimicking glycan/peptide epitopes recognized by virus neutralizing antibodies represent a valuable alternative for the development of non-cognate protein ligands as potential preventative vaccine components. Highly complex combinatorial libraries derived from scaffolds of small and robust protein domains represent a powerful tool for the identification of protein binders mimicking surface glycopeptide epitopes of viruses or bacteria that are recognized by broadly neutralizing antibodies. We use our own concept of a highly complex combinatorial library derived from scaffold of 46 amino acid albumin-binding domain (ABD) and, in combination with ribosome display, we target broadly neutralizing antibody (bNAb) IgG to identify unique binding candidates recognizing paratopes of the selected bNabs. In our proof-of-concept study we identified binders called VRA proteins that mimic gp120 epitope of VRC01 bNAb. The generation of other noncognate proteins ligands will be also presented as well as their potential for HIV-1 vaccine development.

Biography:

Dr.Petr Maly is head of Laboratory of Ligand Engineering at the Institute of Biotechnology, Czech Academy of Sciences in Vestec, Czech Republic. He studied at Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Science, Charles University in Prague, Czech Republic (1980-1985) and completed doctorate at the Institute of Molecular Genetics ASCR (IMG) in Prague. He spent postdoctoral fellowship (1992-1995) at Department of Pathology and Howard Hughes Medical Institute, The University of Michigan Medical School, Ann Arbor, USA, in the laboratory of Prof. John B. Lowe where he published several substantial papers related to in vivo role of mammalian glycosyltransferases. Since 1998 to 2005 he was a research group leader at the IMG in Prague. As a visiting scientist he also worked at Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, College of Medicine, University of Oklahoma, USA. He also was participating investigator of Consortium for Functional Glycomics (USA, 2001–2008) and Member of Editorial Board (2001-2005) and Editor (since 2003) of the Czech journal “Biologicke listy” (Biological Letters). Since 2008, he has been working on the development of combinatorial protein libraries derived from small protein scaffolds, and high-affinity protein binders with therapeutic and diagnostic potential.

  • University of Alabama, USA
  • Title:Species Differences In “Core Biochemistry” Among the Bacteria
  • Time :

Abstract:

Bacterial DNA gyrase catalyzes ATP-dependent negative supercoiling of plasmid and chromosomal DNA. The GyrA and GyrB subunits that make up a tetramer subunit enzyme are essential in many bacteria and are important chemotherapeutic targets for treating pathogenic bacterial infection. DNA replication, RNA transcription, homologous recombination, site-specific recombination, gene transposition, and chromosome condensation are all influenced by negative supercoil density. E. coli and Salmonella Typhimurium are the most thoroughly studied organisms from a supercoil dynamics perspective. They share a conserved chromosomal gene order and have highly conserved homologous proteins involved in DNA replication regulation of transcription and DNA topology. Nonetheless, E. coli maintains plasmid and chromosomal DNA at a significantly (15%) higher supercoil density than Salmonella. E. coli is actually addicted to high supercoiling since it stops growth and cell division when the chromosomal DNA supercoiling falls by 15%, i.e. down to the level of WT Salmonella. Surprisingly, Salmonella can carry out well ordered DNA replication and cell division cycles in cells that lack all diffusible negative supercoils. Moreover, different phenotypes for identical mutations in GyrA, GyrB, and the MukBEF DNA condensin as well many other proteins prove that highly conserved proteins have evolved different roles in “core biochemistry” directing gene expression and chromosome dynamics in each species. Some implications of species divergence and a tool box of genetic modules designed to measuring in vivo bacterial supercoil density and transcription elongation rates around the genome will be presented.

Biography:

Dr.N. Patrick Higgins (b. 1946) completed undergraduate studies at Wichita State University in 1969 and earned a Master’s degree in Biology in 1970. He was drafted and then in 1972 started his Ph.D. degree in the Department of Microbiology at the University of Chicago graduating 1976 for work with Dr. Bernard Strauss in the Department of Microbiology. They published a model for error free DNA repair that predicted replication fork reversal, which has been confirmed in both bacterial and mammalian DNA repair systems. He continued work at the U of Chicago in the Department of Biochemistry as a postdoc in Nicholas Cozzarelli’s lab where he was first to purify two subunits of DNA gyrase and reconstitute the enzyme in vitro. This work prove which subunits were targets of two important drugs, novobiocin and nalidixic acid. In 1979 he joined the faculty of the University of Wyoming and established a collaboration with Toto Olivera at the University of Utah. Together they were first to analyze the mechanism of bacteriophage Mu transposition in vitro with biochemical and molecular biology techniques. After moving to Birmingham in 1984 to the Department of Biochemistry , he was promoted to Associate Professor in 1985 and made a full Professor in 1991. In 2001 he was the E. A. Watkins Visiting Professor at his alma mater Wichita State University. He was also a co-director with Dr. Lisa Guay-Woodford of the new Heflin Center for Human Genetics in the Medical School serving to 2009. He directed the UAB Fermentation Facility from 2000 – 2014, and currently holds the rank of Professor Emeritus of Biochemistry and Molecular Genetics at the University of Alabama at Birmingham. He remains active in his lab.

  • Santiago de Cali University, Columbia
  • Title:Standardization of a Multiplex Real-Time PCR Test for the Identification of Angiostrongylus cantonensis, A. costaricensis and A. vasorum
  • Time :

Abstract:

Angiostrongyliasis is a disease caused by Angiostrongylus nematodes that is present worldwide. The infections with the highest impact on human and animal health are caused by A. cantonensis, A. costaricensis, and A. vasorum. Clinical forms of the disease in humans are eosinophilic meningitis and abdominal angiostrongyliasis, while the most common effect on dogs are cardiopulmonary damages. It is deemed as an emerging disease as the result of the global dissemination of the African snail Lissachatina fulica, an intermediary host of these parasites. The few diagnostic methods for Angiostrongylus spp. are for a single parasite, costly, low sensitive and not available worldwide . It is urgent to develop a sensitive, specific and accessible diagnostic tool for the control of human and animal angiostrongyliasis. Objective: Standardization of a multiplex qPCR for the diagnosis of three Angiostrongylus of clinical importance. Results: The design of primer and taq-man probes allowed the identification of the parasites from the ITS-2 sequence shared by the three species. qPCR did not amplify African snail DNA, human DNA and other parasites. The threshold cycle values for positive DNA controls were: 21 for Angiostrongylus cantonensis, 22 for A. costaricensis, and 31 for A. vasorum. In negative controls, the threshold cycle was zero. qPCR showed an amplification efficiency of 2 (100%). Conclusions: The standardized technique was able to identify and differentiate specifically the three Angiostrongylus species in the same qPCR reaction.

Biography:

Dr. Ruben Eduardo Varela Miranda, is PhD from Salamanca University (Spain). He is proffesor in the school medicine and science basic in the Universidad Santiago de Cali (Colombia). He has published papers in reputed journals and he has a line the research in drug discovery trought identification new molecular target in proteins kinase in trypanosomatid parasites. The professor in 2018 developed a molecular test for the identification of three parasites Angiostrongylus (A. cantonensis, A.vasorum, A. costaricensis) by multiple PCR in African snails.

  • Medical University of South Carolina, USA
  • Title: Quantification of Total Bacterial 16S rDNA in Human Plasma as a Marker of Microbial Translocation in Vivo
  • Time :

Abstract:

Increased systemic microbial translocation contributes to the pathogenesis of various diseases. The magnitude of microbial translocation is measured by total bacterial 16S ribosomal DNA (rDNA) in plasma using quantitative PCR (qPCR). An evaluation of human systemic microbial translocation in vivo is crucial for revealing microbial product-mediated infl ammation, innate immune activation and immune perturbation. The human gut harbors 1012 microorganisms per gram, and this is 10 times more than those from other sites. The intestinal mucosal barrier prevents pathogen invasion and nonpathogenic antigens residing within the intestinal lumen. Notably, the gut mucosal barrier prevents the host from being injured by pathogens, yet allows a very low level of bacterial product translocation to the system to maintain systemic immune homeostasis, as demonstrated by immune deficiencies in mice raised in sterile conditions. Therefore, the quantification of total bacterial 16S rDNA in plasma is used to assess human and animal systemic microbial translocation in vivo, and thus is a great tool to study the role of systemic microbial products in disease pathogenesis and mucosal barrier function. The bacterial 16S rDNA assay can analyze 90% of bacterial strains, including Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. However, use of this assay is highly challenging because of its high technical demands and the risk of contamination. Nonetheless, we have performed this assay successfully and have published several studies regarding the assay’s use. A detailed protocol and results from different cohorts for quantifying total bacterial 16S rDNA in plasma is reported here.

Biography:

Dr. Jiang has completed her MD from the Capital Medical University, Beijing, China and postdoctoral studies from Case Western Reserve University, School of Medicine, Cleveland, Ohio, USA. Currently, she is the associate professor in the Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Medical University of South Carolina, USA. She has published more than 58 papers in reputed journals as the indepedent investigator since 2012 and has been serving as a reviewer for US National Institute of Health grant review, as well as an editorial board member of Journal of Neuroimmune Pharmacology.

  • University of Cranfield, UK
  • Title:Silo Management Decision Support Systems (DSS) for Reducing the Nutritional Values and Mycotoxin Contamination in Cereals
  • Time :

Abstract:

Cereals and nuts can be stored during short or long term. This step is critical in the Food Chain regarding to Food Safety and Quality of the products. Products insufficiently dried or a bad silo management could imply mycotoxin contamination levels higher than the legally allowed. Traditionally in silos, only temperature (T) and relative humidity (RH) sensors are currently being used. As novelty, the use of ATEX complain carbon dioxide (CO2) sensors as a tool of silo management has been developed.
Preliminary studies in laboratory scale in Cranfield University (UK) and Pilot works in Barilla Company (Italy) had shown that the CO2 it is an early indicator of the biological activity in stored cereals compared to T and RH. Additionally, experiments performed under different interacting environment conditions in wheat and maize inoculated with Fusarium graminearum and Aspergillus flavus had shown a good correlation between fungal growth and CO2 production. It is worthy of mentioning that in the same experiments also a good correlation regarding mycotoxin production in several conditions have been found. Also, high CO2 levels are linked with high Dry Matter Losses and therefore, with nutritional losses and poor overall quality. A real-time CO2 model has been developed integrating all the data obtained at Cranfield University and at Barilla company, establishing the respiration baseline of the commodity, that responds with alert system derivate from the different level of risk, which is translate in a traffic light (green: safe, yellow: first alert, and red: high risk) for easy understanding of the final users.
Since CO2 increases could indicate biological activity from different sources (mycotoxigenic and non-mycotoxigenic fungi), in parallel, a different biological model for specific cereal-fungi-toxin have been currently developed (ex. Wheat-F. graminearum-zearalenone) based on T and RH. Therefore, when the CO2 main model alert that high risk, the second model based on the boundary conditions based on T and RH highlight the probability of fungal growth and mycotoxin production in a particular commodity.
Finally, from these models, the silo managers have powerful Decision Support Systems (DSS) to manage the product according to the expected risk. Safe product: human consumption; intermediate risk: a) fast process, b) animal feed application of adsorbent; and, high risk: bio combustibles.

Biography:

Dr Garcia Cela has a strong background in Agricultural Engineering and Food Science and Technology. Her career has been mainly focused on the area of Food Safety management regarding the presence of mould and their toxins along the Food Chain. Her area of expertise is the ecology and metabolomic of fungus. Due to her strong background in food processing and engineering she is also an expert in Food Quality and Certifications applied to the food industries, like the BBRC or the IFS.
She joined Cranfield University (CU) as a Research Fellow in Applied Mycology in September 2016. Currently, she is focusing her work in the Horizon 2020 European Union’s project: MyToolBox “Safe Food and Feed through an Integrated Toolbox for Mycotoxin Management” (https://www.mytoolbox.eu/) in the WP02 and WP03. In this project, her research is mainly focused on the development of biological models that can be implemented as part of different Decision Support Systems (DSS) in cereal and nuts silos. The final goal is to minimise the mycotoxin contamination and allow the different agents to take rapid remedial actions and reduce the waste due to mould spoilage. Besides, she is developing guidelines for Good Silo Management.
She is an active researcher with several publications each year in peer-review journals (Scopus Hindex=7), as well as in international conferences. She is an internationally recognized early career scientist with regular invitations to review research articles in International Journals. She is a member of Society for Applied Microbiology and the Royal Society of Biology.
She is an Associate Fellow of the High Education Academy in the UK and an active member of the teaching team for CU’s MSc course in Food Chain Systems (more than 50 hours of lectures per year, group case studies, practical and individual and group project supervision). To sum up, she is also supervising MSc and PhD students.
Despite her mainly research line is focused on the area of Food Safety and Quality, she is currently exploring new areas in which her expertise and skills can provide new approaches towards the application of improved environmentally friendly strategies. In this sense, she is also collaborating with different research groups like the xxxxxxx and xxxxx (vinod y Sameer)
The main goal of Dr Garcia-Cela is to develop viable technologies that can be transferred to society, enhancing in this way the relationship between academia, the industry and the final consumers.

  • Beni Suef University, Egypt
  • Title:Combination of Pesticides
  • Time :

Abstract:

Combination of pesticides; acetamiprid, flutolanil and etofenprox are usually used for tomato fruits for protecting them against pest infection. Generally, pesticides, residues could be one of the health hazard sources. Two specific simple sensitive chromatographic methods are developed for simultaneous estimation of the concerning pesticides’ residues using simple economic steps of field sample preparation. The first method is HP- TLC method. Hexane: methanol: acetone: glacial acetic acid (8: 2: 0.5: 0.1, by volume) is proposed as a developing system. The second one is RP- HPLC. Acetonitrile: water (75: 25, v/v) is proposed as a mobile phase. The recommended methods are completely validated regarding ICH guidelines. Their means percentages and standard deviations of accuracy range 100.32± 0.89- 99.27± 0.9. The methods’ repeatability and intermediate precision relative standard deviation percentages range 0.395 & 0.894. They are successfully applied for estimating the pesticides in pure and commercial forms and field samples.

Biography:

Dr. Hegazy holds a BSc in pharmacy from Cairo University, Egypt. She received her PhD in pharmaceutical analysis from Cairo University, Egypt/ University of Alberta, Canada.
Her research interests are in food chemistry, microbiological assessment, environmental and pharmaceutical analysis and detection in applied forms and nanoparticles and screening of anticancer factors.
She is the founder Department of Analytical Chemistry and the founder and director of the Alumni Sector in the newly developed Faculty of Pharmacy, Beni Suef University, Egypt. She is the president of the Council of Alumni of her faculty.

  • HCM National University, Vietnam
  • Title:Virulent Factors, Whole-Genome Phylogenetic and Comparative Genomic Analysis of Extreme-Drug-Resistant VAP Acinetobacter baumannii Strain in a Vietnam Hospital
  • Time :

Abstract:

Background: Acinetobacter baumannii is the leading multidrug resistant agent in Vietnamese health care systems in the second decade of the 21st century. Nowadays, an effective treatment for Acinetobacter baumannii carrying the genes encoding the enzymes hydrolyzed carbapenemase the most important problem for the clinicians. Objective: Determination of antibiotic resistance characteristics, ratio of genes related to carbapenem resistance and in-vitro bactericidal effect of antibiotic combinations on A. baumannii. Method: Retrospective descriptive analysis study. Carbapenem-resistant A. baumannii were collected from patients with HAP in Thongnhat General Hospital of Dongnai Province from January 2013 to December 2017. Results: Number of A. baumannii strains studied was 105. A. baumannii was 100% sensitive to colistin and 99.1% with tigecycline. 100% A. baumannii has MIC of meropenem ≥ 32µg/ml. There are 87% MIC colistin with 1µg/ml and 0.9% MIC tigecycline> 2 µg/ml. Meropenem/colistin and meropenem/rifampicin combinations have synergistic and additive effects with very high rates, 94.3% and 81.9%, respectively, to A. baumannii. However, tigecycline/colistin combination only gives synergistic additive effects at a rate of 36.2%. The effect of colistin at concentration of 1 µg/ml or rifampicin at a concentration of 2 µg/ml under MIC can convert A. baumannii from non-sensitive to meropenem to susceptible ones at high rates. Class D carbapenemase coding genes include blaOXA-51, blaOXA-23, blaOXA-58 distributed in A. baumannii with 97.1%; 79% and 7.6%, respectively. Whereas, blaNDM-1 carbapenemase gene of class B was distributed in A. baumannii with the rate of 13.3% and no blaKPC gene of class A carbapenemase encoded in A. baumannii was recorded. In this study, 93.3% of carbapenem resistant A. baumannii strains carried ISAba1. Conclusion: A. baumannii is resistant to carbapenem due to carrying multiple carbapenemase genes and in-vitro tigecycline/colistin combination for a lower bactericidal effect for A. baumannii than meropenem/colistin and meropenem/rifampicin.

Biography:

Dr. Nguyen Si-Tuan graduated with a master’s degree in Molecular microbiology at Paris sud11 University in 2010 and graduated with a PhD’s degree in Biotechnology at Ho Chi Minh National University in 2014. He has published 8 ISI papers with 18 citations and 3 h-index. He is the Head of the Department of Clinical Microbiology of Thongnhat General Hospital of Dongnai Province, Vietnam from 2014 to the present.
Activities (From 2013 – 2019):
➢ Speaker at 12th ASIAN Network for Clinical Laboratory Standardization and Harmonization (ANCLS) International Congress in 2013.
➢ Poster presentation at 11th International Symposium on the Biology of Acinetobacter in 2017.
➢ Speaker at the 8th ASEAN Conference on Tropical Medicine and Parasitology (ACTMP) 2018.
➢ Poster presentation at the ASM (American Society for Microbiology) Conference on Rapid Applied Microbial Next-Generation Sequencing and Bioinformatics Pipelines, September 23 – 26, 2018 in Tysons, VA, USA.
➢ Speaker at the 1st International Congress on Microbiology and One – Health in 2018.
➢ Speaker at the 4th Pan – ASIAN Biomedical Science Conference help in 2018.
➢ Speaker at the 7th European Clinical Microbiology Congress, November 01 – 02, 2018 at London, United Kingdom.
➢ Speaker at the 9th International Congress of the Asia Pacific Society of Infectious Control in 2019

  • Jiangsu Academy of Agricultural Sciences, China
  • Title:Broad Host Range Phage vB-LmoM-SH3-3 Reduces the Risk of Listeria Contamination in Two Types of Ready-To-Eat Food
  • Time :

Abstract:

Listeria monocytogenes is a food borne pathogen causing listeriosis in humans and animals. L. monocytogenes can tolerate severe environments and food processing conditions by forming biofilms and becoming resistant to disinfectants. Thus, it is important to develop new strategies to control the contamination of L. monocytogenes and keep food safety. In the present study, a new L. monocytogenes phage vB-LmoMSH3-3 (designated as phage SH3-3) was isolated from a food processing plant. The genome of phage SH3-3 shares homology with multiple non-Listeria phages, but shares low similarity with classical Listeria phages. Phage SH3-3 showed widely lytic activity to Listeria spp. including L. monocytogenes, L.innocua and L. welshimeri. With an efficient minimal inhibitory concentration, phage SH3-3 could also inhibit the formation of the dense and net-like structure of the L. monocytogenes biofilm. Moreover, phage SH3-3 showed high efficacy against L. monocytogenes in salmon meat and orange juice. Therefore, phage SH3-3 could be potentially used as a natural biocontrol preservative to reduce L. monocytogenes contamination in ready-to-eat food and during the processing stages of food production.

Biography:

Dr.Zhang Hui is a PhD, professor and postgraduate student supervisor. From 2012 to 2013, she was the visiting scholar to Guelph Food Research Center of Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada. From 2014 to 2015, he was the visiting scholar to the College of Agriculture and Natural Resources, University of Connecticut.
In the past five years, Zhang Hui has been mainly engaged in research on monitoring and control of zoonotic pathogen contamination, focusing on research and development of key food safety prevention and control technologies and products based on bacteriophage technology. As the Director of China Food-borne Microorganism Detection Technology Innovation Alliance, Dr. Zhang presided over projects under National Natural Science Foundation of China and Jiangsu Provincial Independent Innovation Fund and the preparation of industrial standards of Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Affairs. She published more than 50 papers in well-known journals such as PNAS, Scientific Reports, Food Microbiology and Food Control, obtained 11 authorized invention patents. Moreover, she won the second prize of Jiangsu Science and Technology Award and Outstanding Invention Patent Award of Jiangsu Province.

  • Umm Al-Qura University, Saudi Arabia
  • Title:Acute Rhinosinusitis During Hajj Season 2014: Prevalence of Bacterial Infection and Patterns of Antimicrobial Susceptibility
  • Time :

Abstract:

Background: The presence of large number of pilgrims during Hajj in Makkah region increases the risk of respiratory diseases. In this study, we aimed to assess the bacteriology of acute rhinosinusitis (ARS) during Hajj season and to demonstrate the antimicrobial susceptibility patterns that should guide the clinicians towards more appropriate antibiotic use.
Methods: Patients with ARS presenting during Hajj season of 2014 were prospectively enrolled. According to EPOS2012 criteria. Sampling of sinus secretions was performed from the middle meatus adjacent to the maxillary sinus ostium via endoscopic guidance. Over all, the study has covered all ENT, emergency and outpatient departments in Hajj.
Results: Two hundred and twenty six patients with ARS were enrolled in the study. Pathogenic bacteria were identified in 93 (41.2%) patients. Of the 93 patients with bacterial ARS, Staphylococcus aureus was isolated in 46 (49.5%) patients, out of which 13 (28.3%) were methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA).The second most common group of bacterial isolates was Enterobacteriaceae such as Escherichia coli, and various Klebsiella species. Antibiotic sensitivity showed that methicillin-sensitive Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA) was also sensitive to cephalosporins, quinolones and clindamycin, while exhibiting relatively less sensitivity rates to amoxicillin-clavulinic acid and macrolides.
Conclusion: Our study demonstrates the importance of assessing the bacteriology of ARS to help implement guidelines for proper treatment and prevention protocols during Hajj season.

Biography:

Dr.Osama Marglani, Professor and Consultant Of otolaryngology head and neck Surgery, Faculty of Medicine, and director of the simulation center for medical education at the Umm Al-QuraUniversity , head of Ophthalmology and otolaryngology department , Faculty of Medicine at the Umm Al-Qura University . and a Reviewer and editor of the Pan Arab Juornal of Rhinology ( PARS ) .
Dr. Marglani is Canadian board certified in otolaryngology head and neck surgery, 2005 from Ottawah ,Canada .
He has fellowship in Rhinology ,Endoscopic sinus and skull base surgery ,Vancouver ,BC, Canada.
He published more than 30 scientific research papers in otolaryngology , infectious diseases, and sinuses diseases prevention , treatment methods in ENT surgery and surgical educational .

  • Institute of Bioengineering and Nanotechnology, Singapore
  • Title: Nanostructured Antimicrobial Technology
  • Time :

Abstract:

Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) is one of the most critical challenges in our modern society. It was predicted that there could be more than 10 million death related to AMR in 2050. The overuse of antibiotics, including non-therapeutic applications such as agriculture and environmental disinfection, represents one of the main causes for antimicrobial resistance. On the other hand, up to 80% of the germs are transmitted via surface contact. Therefore, killing bacteria on the frequently touched surfaces is an effective way to avoid cross-infection. The common method to kill bacteria on these surfaces relies on organic disinfectants (small molecules and polymers or organic coatings) which may lead to secondary contamination and drug resistance. Herein, we will introduce novel non-resistance, nano-structured antimicrobial technologies and green surface disinfection technology. Our disinfection surface technology coats various surfaces with nanopatterns which kill adhered bacteria and fungi due to their physical structure through a rupturing mechanism or due to secondary ROS mechanism. These disinfecting surface and antimicrobial technologies are clean and safe, require no externally applied chemicals and can reduce healthcare-associated infections.

Biography:

Dr. Yugen Zhang is a Group Leader at the Institute of Bioengineering and Nanotechnology (IBN), A-Star, Singapore. He graduated from the University of Science and Technology of China (USTC), where he received his PhD in Chemistry in 1992. After his PhD, he joined USTC as a faculty member and was promoted to Professor in 1999. He visited Riken (Japan) (1996 to 1997, 2000 to 2001), where he worked as visiting scholar in Prof. Zhaomin Hou’ group. Before he joined IBN in 2004, he had been working at Harvard University as a post-doctoral research associate in Prof. RH Holm’s group (2002-2004). His main research areas are green catalysis, nanomaterials and biomaterials.

  • University of Santander, Colombia
  • Title:Ib-M2 Antimicrobial Peptide: Immobilization and Antibacterial Activity Agains E. coli O157:H7
  • Time :

Abstract:

Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) have attracted importance as new potential drugs due to the advantages that they exhibit regarding conventional antibiotics. These compounds are characterized by having a broad antimicrobial spectrum and multiple mechanisms of action, which hinders the development of resistance in microorganisms. The ib-m2 peptide has been reported as promising for use against gram-negative bacteria such as Escherichia coli O157:H7. Despite the above, the clinical use of this type of compounds is limited due to their short half-life, mainly because they are susceptible to degradation by proteases. Therefore, a proposed alternative to overcome these disadvantages is the immobilization of peptides on surfaces that are biocompatible. Polymeric matrices have attracted great interest as new systems in the development of controlled release of biologically active molecules due to their versatility, biocompatibility, and biodegradability. On the other hand, the use of magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (IONPs) has gained attention as supports of the above. This work presents the preparation, characterization, and bioactivity of two types of immobilization: polymeric beads of sodium alginate-chitosan (Alg- CH) and IONPs. The polymeric matrices obtained were prepared by chemical crosslinking used CaCl2 and presented sensitivity to changes in pH the release of Ib-M2 and pH values of 6.5. For the other hand, the IONPs were prepared by co-precipitation in aqueous medium using Fe2+ and Fe3+ salt precursors (molar ratio 1:2). The nanoparticles were coated with chitosan (1% w/w in acetic acid 2% v/v). The immobilization of Ib-M2 was carried out by the formation of an amide bond between carboxyl groups of the peptide and amine groups of chitosan using TBTU and DIPEA (N,N- Diisopropylethylamine). The as-prepared IONPs and the Ib-M2/IONPs bioconjugate were characterized by DLS, SEM, TEM, FT-IR, XRD, XPS and magnetic hysteresis measurements. The antibacterial activity of the Ib-M2/IONPs and Ib-M2 in beads Alg-CH was evaluated by the microdilution procedure using a synthetic aqueous sample contaminated with Escherichia coli O157:H7. The results showed that the percentage of immobilization of Ib-M2 was between 55 and 65% with the used procedure. Also, it was possible to reach a percentage of inhibition of the growth of E. coli O157:H7 of 99% after 24 h using an immobilized peptide concentration of 6.25 µM.

Biography:

Dr. Flórez-Castillo is an associate professor at the University of Santander in Colombia. Her research focuses on the design of antimicrobial peptide and the immobilization system of biomolecules. Within the immobilization systems, she has worked with are the polymer systems of alginate, chitosan, and PVA. As well as iron oxide nanoparticles.

  • The Hashemite University, Jordan
  • Title:Inactivation of Stressed Foodborne pathogens in Hummus Using Gamma Irradiation
  • Time :

Abstract:

Hummus (chickpea dip) is one of the most popular traditional foods in Middle East countries including Jordan. Recently, the incidence of pathogens and outbreaks associated with hummus has increased worldwide. Most common bacterial foodborne pathogens grow or survive in hummus are Salmonella, Escherichia coli and Listeria monocytogenes. Therefore, this study aimed to i) investigate the feasibility of using gamma radiation to eliminate Salmonella spp., L. monocytogenes and E. coli O157:H7 in hummus, ii) evaluate the effect of desiccation, heat stresses and cold on the sensitivity of these microbes toward irradiation. Hummus samples were inoculated with fresh or desiccated, heat, cold stressed cocktail cultures of Salmonella spp., L. monocytogenes or E. coli O157:H7 individually at level of ca 107 CFU/g and then exposed to gamma radiation at doses of. The populations of unstressed E. coli O157:H7, L. monocytogenes and Salmonella were reduced by 0.6-3.9, 1.0-3.0 and 0.7-2.9, respectively by 0-0.6 KGy of gamma irradiation. Desiccation, heat, cold and acid stresses prior irradiation treatment did not affect the resistance of E. coli O157:H7 toward gamma radiation. However, stressed L. monocytogenes and Salmonella cells were more resistant to gamma irradiation compared to control (unstressed) cells. This study approved the efficiency of low levels of gamma irradiation to reduce the risk of unstressed and desiccation, acid or heat stressed pathogens in hummus, although the environmental stresses enhanced the resistance of L. monocytogenes and Salmonella.

Biography:

Dr.Amin N. Olaimat is an assistant professor of Food Safety and Hygiene at the Department of Clinical Nutrition and Dietetics, Faculty of Allied Health Sciences in the Hashemite University, Jordan. Olaimat completed his Ph.D. in Food Science from University of Manitoba, Canada and obtained his BSc. and Msc. degrees from the Jordan University of Science and Technology, Jordan. Olaimat has published 50 peer-reviewed papers in reputed international journals and 25 conferences beside 1 book chapter. His current research interests include the risk analysis and studying the microbial quality and safety of foods, development, use and evaluation of natural antimicrobials to enhance the safety and extend the shelf-life of foods, development of active packaging materials to improve the quality and safety of foods, and bacterial stress response in food environment and its impact on the irradiation and thermal inactivation of foodborne pathogens.

  • James Cook University, Australia
  • Title:The Human T Cell Receptor: Genetics, Biology and Future Prognostics, Diagnostics and Therapeutics using this System
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Abstract:

Humans have an estimated 1012 T cells. T cells are an extremely potent force in maintaining health, fitness and homeostasis of our bodies. While T cells are typically known for eradicating pathogens and immunoediting (eradicating cancer cells), cross-reactive T cells are thought to be the engines
behind autoimmunity. Interestingly, recent data suggest that T cells can even control the health and fitness of our organs such as the brain, central nervous system, kidney, liver, gut and the skin. T cells can regulate pain psychological stress and even repair tissue. New evidence also shows that T cells can regulate spatial learning and memory and even control heartbeat. These diverse functions are typically mediated via the T cell receptor (TCR) on the T cell membrane. Here, I will give an overview of human TCR genetics and biology and progress in understanding using NGS. This new information opens avenues to use the T cell receptor for prognostics, diagnostics and therapeutics.

Biography:

Prof. John Miles is a Principal Research Fellow in Molecular Immunology at James Cook University, Co-Director of the Centre for Tropical Bioinformatics and Molecular Biology and Theme Leader for the Centre for Molecular Therapeutics. He specializes in TCR immunogenetics, molecular biology, genetic recombination, biochemistry, T cell function and structural biology and TCR bioinformatics. Professor Miles received a BSc. degree in physiology and microbiology, a BSC. Honors degree in virology and a PhD in Immunology from the University of Queensland, Australia. Professor Miles has received 20 prizes and awards for his work including the Centenary Medal from her Majesty Queen Elizabeth II for Distinguished Service to Medical Research and the Community.

  • University of Santander, Colombia
  • Title:Detection of Pathogenic E. coli by Electrochemical Biosensors based on Aptamers Selected by Cell Selex
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Abstract:

Escherichia coli is an enterobacteria considered one of the most pathogenic bacteria capable of causing diseases transmitted by contaminated food and water. Among them, enterohemorrhagic E. coli (EHEC) is the group with the highest prevalence in the most aggressive cases of diarrhea and serotype O157:H7 is the most found isolated which produces cytotoxins. For this reason, the timely detection of this pathogen is a topic of great importance in public health. The detection of E. coli is conventionally done through the use of microbiological and molecular tools. However, the long periods of time to issue a result has led to the search for new strategies for the detection and rapid identification of pathogens.

Aptamers are single stranded DNA or RNA oligonucleotides whose length should be less than 100 nucleotides. They adopt a three dimensional structure capable of recognizing a wide range of target molecules with a high selectivity and affinity such as proteins, carbohydrates, small molecules and even cells whole. Aptamers are isolated by Systematic Evolution of Ligands by Exponential Enrichment (SELEX). One of potential uses of aptamers is in biosensors (aptasensors) due to their high productivity, affinity, selectivity and stability. The search for specific and sensitive aptamers for E. coli O157:H7 detection is still under study. In this work, Cell-SELEX (SELEX process adapted to cells) was performed using a 60 mer length random library by means of positive selection rounds using E. coli O157:H7 as target cell. Enterobacteria from other groups and gram positive bacteria were used as negative control. Aptamers with higher affinity were cloned, sequencing and bioinformatic analysis was carried out. These allowed the selection of candidate aptamers for in vitro assays. Finally, a specific aptamer with high affinity and ideal selectivity was selected for the detection of E. coli with a potential use for the development of aptasensors that allow early detection of acute diarrheal diseases.

Biography:

Dr.Jose Luis Ropero Vega is Associate Professor in the master’s program in Biotechnology at the Universidad de Santander (Colombia). He received his PhD degree from Universidad Industrial de Santander, Colombia. He has been working on the design, synthesis and study of nanomaterials for various applications. He is currently focused on two lines of research: on the one hand, the development of nanotransporters of biomolecules based on biopolymers and magnetic nanoparticles. On the other hand, the development of biosensors for detection of microorganisms of interest in public or environmental health and biomarkers for the early detection of diseases.

  • International Centre for Diarrhoeal Disease Research, Bangladesh
  • Title:Reservoir of Cholera and Development of a Novel Mixture to Control Cholera in Bangladesh
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Abstract:

Cholera is still a killing disease in Bangladesh and other developing countries in Asia, Africa and Latin America. Cholera epidemics occur twice every year in Bangladesh and maintain a seasonal pattern. Vibrio cholerae O1 could be isolated from patient’s stool and the environmental water during cholera seasons. However when the epidemic is over, the organism could not be isolated from the water until the next season. Therefore the question where do the bacteria go and hide and what is the inter-epidemic reservoir of cholera? This bacterium was discovered in 1884 and since then these question has been puzzling the Scientists. As cholera is a waterborne disease, scientists investigated all kinds of aquatic fauna including crab, snail, oyster, zooplankton, fish etc. but could not come up with any conclusive evidence that aquatic fauna can act as an inter-epidemic reservoir of cholera. About 100 years later, we hypothesized that there are numerous aquatic flora (plants) in the aquatic ecosystems and they can act as inter-epidemic reservoirs. Based on this hypothesis, we investigated the association of aquatic plants and the bacterium. Finally we discovered that a blue green alga, Anabina variabilis could act as an inter- epidemic reservoir. This is the first time, blue green algae was shown as the inter- epidemic reservoir. After the discovery of algae as reservoir, we tried to find out how the disease could be eradicated from Bangladesh by applying point of use water treatment strategy. Finally, we have been able to develop a mixture consisted of alum potash, bleaching powder, lime and some chemicals from the laboratory which is called “Siraj Mixture” by which the contaminated surface water could be decontaminated. This mixture cost only TK. 2.00 (US $0.01) and can purify 15 liters of surface water within 30 minutes. Field trial was conducted to see the acceptability and effectiveness of this mixture in a cholera endemic area in Bangladesh in 420 families who were provided the mixture with appropriate control for one year. Those families except one who used the mixture did not contract cholera. The innovation of the mixture is a simple solution for prevention of cholera in Bangladesh. Therefore discovery of inter-epidemic reservoir and innovation of the novel mixture are significant achievements in the history of cholera research.

  • University of Cambridge, United Kingdom
  • Title:Risk of Lethality Due to Nosocomial Infections in a Tertiary-Level Hospital
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Abstract:

Infections associated with health care, previously known as nosocomial infections, constitute one of the main causes of morbidity and mortality in hospital. The aim of our study was to estimate the lethality of HAI, as well as the risk of dying from HAI versus mortality by other causes. Methods: We analyzed the historical cohort of IAAS of the Epidemiology service of a tertiary-level hospital, from 2012 to 2017. The incidence analysis and the probability of death of IAAS were made against other causes, as well as the analysis of age, period-cohort of lethality of IAAS. Results: The incidence of IAAS ranged from 27.9 to 31.5 IAAS/1000 person-days between 2012 and 2017, the probability of having an IAAS in ICU is 3.51 (CI95%: 2.93-4.20), p < 0.01, NAVM lethality against any other causes of death had a relative risk (RR) of 6.06 (CI95%: 2.91-12.6) in 2016, RR was 4.01 (CI95%: 1.59-10.09) in ITUAC in 2015, no effect of age, cohort or period in the case of IAAS was identified. Conclusions: IAAS remain to be an important public health problem in our country, without excluding our medical unit, it is important to redirect efforts to reduce them in the medium term.                                                                                                                                                          Biography:

Dr.Oscar Ovalle is a Mexican epidemiologist, who works in Social Security Mexican Institute, his experience in nosocomial infections include implementation of PCI programs in tertiary level hospitals, hand hygiene and actually collaborates in national program of infection control in Social Security Mexican Institute.

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